TRIP Measures

The researchers at TRIP have developed measures designed to assess attributes of smokers, tobacco dependence, and the process of quitting. These (below) are available for your use.

  • Smoking Consequences Questionnaire (SCQ):
    • The Smoking Consequences Questionnaire (SCQ) was developed to assess smoking-related outcome expectancies among college-aged smokers and nonsmokers, with the goal of predicting future smoking behavior (i.e., initiation, maintenance, cessation, and relapse).  With this population, four factors emerged across 50 items: Negative Consequences, Positive Reinforcement-Sensory Satisfaction, Negative Reinforcement-Negative Affect Reduction, and Appetite-Weight Control.  Although the scales were developed to measure “subjective expected utility,” which is the product of probability and desirability ratings, most researchers use only the probability ratings.
    • Measure
    • Scoring procedure
    • Brandon, T. H., & Baker, T. B. (1991). The Smoking Consequences Questionnaire: The subjective expected utility of smoking in college students. Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 3, 484-491.
  • Smoking Consequences Questionnaire-Adult (SCQ-A)
    • The Smoking Consequences Questionnaire-Adult (SCQ-Adult) was developed for assessing outcome expectancies in older, more experienced smokers.  With this population, 10 probability scales emerged across 55 items.  The greater number of scales, compared to the original SCQ, likely reflects the greater refinement and differentiation of expectancies with greater smoking experience, consistent with expectancy findings with other substances.  The SCQ-Adult showed strong construct validity across multiple indices.
    • Measure
    • Scoring procedure
    • Copeland, A. L., Brandon, T. H., & Quinn, E. P. (1995). The Smoking Consequences Questionnaire-Adult: Measurement of smoking outcome expectancies of experienced smokers. Psychological Assessment, 7(4), 484-494. 
  • Abstinence-Related Motivational Engagement (ARME) scale
    • The Abstinence-Related Motivational Engagement Measure (ARME) assesses motivational engagement after a smoker has made an attempt to quit smoking.  Abstinence motivation is reflected by an ex-smoker’s daily experience in areas that include cognitive effort, priority, vigilance, and excitement.  Both the 16-item ARME measure and 5-item ARME short-form have good psychometric properties. 
    • Measure
    • Scoring procedure
    • ARME-Short Form
    • Simmons, V.N., Heckman, B.W., Ditre, J.W., & Brandon, T.H. (2010).  A measure of smoking abstinence-related motivational engagement:  development and initial validation.  Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 12, 432-437. PMCID: PMC2847080
  • Questionnaire on Smoking Urges (QSU)
    • The Questionnaire on Smoking Urges (QSU) is a 32-item measure that assesses current urges and craving to smoke a cigarette. In addition to an overall score, the QSU provides scores on two correlated aspects of craving. Factor 1 captures desires and intention to smoke a cigarette, with smoking anticipated as a pleasurable activity. Factor 2 captures strong and overwhelming cravings, with smoking anticipated to relief negative affect and withdrawal.
    • Measure
    • Scoring procedure
    • Tiffany, S. T., & Drobes, D. J. (1991). The development and initial validation of a questionnaire on smoking urges. Addiction, 86(11), 1467-1476.
  • Obsessive Compulsive Smoking Scale (OCSS)
    • The Obsessive-Compulsive Smoking Scale (OCSS) is a 10-item questionnaire designed to measure smoking-related thoughts and behaviors that interfere with normal functioning. In addition to an overall score, the OCSS can be scored for two correlated factors, interpreted as “Preoccupation with Smoking” and “Compulsive Drive”.
    • Measure
    • Scoring procedure
    • Hitsman, B., Shen, B. J., Cohen, R. A., Morissette, S. B., Drobes, D. J., Spring, B., ... & Price, L. H. (2010). Measuring smoking-related preoccupation and compulsive drive: evaluation of the obsessive compulsive smoking scale. Psychopharmacology,211(4), 377-387.