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Amer Beg, PhD

Academic Rank: Senior Member

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Overview

Developing new strategies to increase tumor immunogenicity and response to therapeutics.


Discipline

    • Immunology
    • Thoracic Oncology
    • Immunology
    • Lung Cancer Center of Excellence
    • Cancer Chemoprevention Research Interest Group

Education & Training

Fellowship:

  • University of North Carolina- Chapel Hill, PhD - Biology
  • Quaid-e-Azam University (Islamabad, Pakistan), MS - Biology
  • Rockefeller University, Postdoctoral Fellow -
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Postdoctoral Fellow -
Research

  The Beg laboratory is interested in developing new strategies aimed at modulating the tumor microenvironment to increase tumor immunogenicity and response to therapeutics. Through both laboratory and clinical trial studies, ongoing projects aim to modulate activity of epigenetic and cytokine pathways to enhance immunological control of lung cancer. The Beg laboratory is also developing novel oncolytic virus strategies to generate potent anti-tumor T cell responses that can turn immune “cold” to “hot” tumors capable of responding to checkpoint inhibitors and other immunotherapeutics.

Publications

  • Xie M, Zheng H, Madan-Lala R, Dai W, Gimbrone NT, Chen Z, Kinose F, Blackstone SA, Smalley KSM, Cress WD, Haura EB, Rix U, Beg AA. MEK Inhibition Modulates Cytokine Response to Mediate Therapeutic Efficacy in Lung Cancer. Cancer Res. 2019 Jul. Pubmedid: 31362929.
  • Stewart PA, Welsh EA, Slebos RJC, Fang B, Izumi V, Chambers M, Zhang G, Cen L, Pettersson F, Zhang Y, Chen Z, Cheng CH, Thapa R, Thompson Z, Fellows KM, Francis JM, Saller JJ, Mesa T, Zhang C, Yoder S, DeNicola GM, Beg AA, Boyle TA, Teer JK, Ann Chen Y, Koomen JM, Eschrich SA, Haura EB. Proteogenomic landscape of squamous cell lung cancer. Nat Commun. 2019 Aug;10(1):3578. Pubmedid: 31395880. Pmcid: PMC6687710.
  • Gray JE, Saltos AN, Tanvetyanon T, Haura EB, Creelan BC, Antonia SJ, Shafique M, Zheng H, Dai W, Saller JJ, Chen Z, Tchekmedyian N, Goas K, Thapa R, Boyle TA, Chen DT, Beg AA. Phase I/Ib Study of Pembrolizumab Plus Vorinostat in Advanced/Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2019 Aug.25(22):6623-6632. Pubmedid: 31409616.
  • Han T, Jiang S, Zheng H, Yin Q, Xie M, Little MR, Yin X, Chen M, Song SJ, Beg AA, Pandolfi PP, Wan L. Interplay between c-Src and the APC/C co-activator Cdh1 regulates mammary tumorigenesis. Nat Commun. 2019 Aug;10(1):3716. Pubmedid: 31420536. Pmcid: PMC6697746.
  • Schabath MB, Welsh EA, Fulp WJ, Chen L, Teer JK, Thompson ZJ, Engel BE, Xie M, Berglund AE, Creelan BC, Antonia SJ, Gray JE, Eschrich SA, Chen DT, Cress WD, Haura EB, Beg AA. Differential association of STK11 and TP53 with KRAS mutation-associated gene expression, proliferation and immune surveillance in lung adenocarcinoma. Oncogene. 2016 Jun;35(24):3209-3216. Pubmedid: 26477306. Pmcid: PMC4837098.
  • Chen L, Engel BE, Welsh EA, Yoder SJ, Brantley SG, Chen DT, Beg AA, Cao C, Kaye FJ, Haura EB, Schabath MB, Cress WD. A Sensitive NanoString-Based Assay to Score STK11 (LKB1) Pathway Disruption in Lung Adenocarcinoma. J Thorac Oncol. 2016 Jun;11(6):838-849. Pubmedid: 26917230. Pmcid: PMC4877210.
  • Zheng H, Zhao W, Yan C, Watson CC, Messengill M, Xie M, Messengill C, Noyes D, Martinez GV, Afzal R, Chen Z, Ren X, Antonia SJ, Haura EB, Ruffell B, Beg AA. HDAC Inhibitors Enhance T-Cell Chemokine Expression and Augment Response to PD-1 Immunotherapy in Lung Adenocarcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2016 Aug;22(16):4119-4132. Pubmedid: 26964571. Pmcid: PMC4987196.
  • Beg AA, Gray JE. HDAC inhibitors with PD-1 blockade: a promising strategy for treatment of multiple cancer types?. Epigenomics. 2016 08;8(8):1015-1017. Pubmedid: 27410519.
  • Woods NT, Monteiro AN, Thompson ZJ, Amankwah EK, Naas N, Haura EB, Beg AA, Schabath MB. Interleukin polymorphisms associated with overall survival, disease-free survival, and recurrence in non-small cell lung cancer patients. Mol Carcinogen. 2015 Jun;54 Suppl 1:E172-E184. Pubmedid: 25597281. Pmcid: PMC4475444.
  • Haura EB, Beg AA, Rix U, Antonia S. Charting Immune Signaling Proteomes En Route to New Therapeutic Strategies. Cancer Immunol Res. 2015 Jul;3(7):714-720. Pubmedid: 26081226. Pmcid: PMC4491034.
  • Tchekmedyian N, Gray JE, Creelan BC, Chiappori AA, Beg AA, Soliman H, Perez BA, Antonia SJ. Propelling Immunotherapy Combinations Into the Clinic. Oncology (Williston Park). 2015 Dec;29(12):990-1002. Pubmedid: 26680224.
  • Wang X, Wang J, Zheng H, Xie M, Hopewell EL, Albrecht RA, Nogusa S, García-Sastre A, Balachandran S, Beg AA. Differential requirement for the IKKβ/NF-κB signaling module in regulating TLR- versus RLR-induced type 1 IFN expression in dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2014 Sep;193(5):2538-2545. Pubmedid: 25057006. Pmcid: PMC4134964.
  • Bronk CC, Yoder S, Hopewell EL, Yang S, Celis E, Yu XZ, Beg AA. NF-κB is crucial in proximal T-cell signaling for calcium influx and NFAT activation. Eur J Immunol. 2014 Dec;44(12):3741-3746. Pubmedid: 25251667. Pmcid: PMC4261047.
  • Yu Y, Wang D, Kaosaard K, Liu C, Fu J, Haarberg K, Anasetti C, Beg AA, Yu XZ. c-Rel is an essential transcription factor for the development of acute graft-versus-host disease in mice. Eur J Immunol. 2013 Sep;43(9):2327-2337. Pubmedid: 23716202. Pmcid: PMC3940138.
  • Haarberg KM, Li J, Heinrichs J, Wang D, Liu C, Bronk CC, Kaosaard K, Owyang AM, Holland S, Masuda E, Tso K, Blazar BR, Anasetti C, Beg AA, Yu XZ. Pharmacologic inhibition of PKCα and PKCθ prevents GVHD while preserving GVL activity in mice. Blood. 2013 Oct;122(14):2500-2511. Pubmedid: 23908466. Pmcid: PMC3790515.
  • Kim JY, Beg AA, Haura EB. Non-canonical IKKs, IKKϵ and TBK1, as novel therapeutic targets in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2013 Oct;17(10):1109-1112. Pubmedid: 23984985.
  • Beg AA, Khan T, Antonia SJ. A new role for NFκB in immunosurveillance and its implications for cancer immunotherapy. Oncoimmunology. 2013 Oct;2(10):e25963. Pubmedid: 24404421. Pmcid: PMC3875605.
  • Schabath MB, Giuliano AR, Thompson ZJ, Amankwah EK, Gray J, Fenstermacher DA, Jonathan KA, Beg AA, Haura EB. TNFRSF10B polymorphisms and haplotypes associated with increased risk of death in non-small cell lung cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2013 Nov;34(11):2525-2530. Pubmedid: 23839018. Pmcid: PMC3810840.
  • Hopewell EL, Zhao W, Fulp WJ, Bronk CC, Lopez AS, Massengill M, Antonia S, Celis E, Haura EB, Enkemann SA, Chen DT, Beg AA. Lung tumor NF-κB signaling promotes T cell-mediated immune surveillance. J Clin Invest. 2013 Jun;123(6):2509-2522. Pubmedid: 23635779. Pmcid: PMC3668836.
  • Kim JY, Welsh EA, Oguz U, Fang B, Bai Y, Kinose F, Bronk C, Remsing Rix LL, Beg AA, Rix U, Eschrich SA, Koomen JM, Haura EB. Dissection of TBK1 signaling via phosphoproteomics in lung cancer cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jul;110(30):12414-12419. Pubmedid: 23836654. Pmcid: PMC3725062.
  • Guo J, Kim D, Gao J, Kurtyka C, Chen H, Yu C, Wu D, Mittal A, Beg AA, Chellappan SP, Haura EB, Cheng JQ. IKBKE is induced by STAT3 and tobacco carcinogen and determines chemosensitivity in non-small cell lung cancer. Oncogene. 2013 Jan;32(2):151-159. Pubmedid: 22330135. Pmcid: PMC4109158.
  • Vester A, Velez-Ruiz G, McLaughlin HM, Nisc Comparative Sequencing Program , Lupski JR, Talbot K, Vance JM, Züchner S, Roda RH, Fischbeck KH, Biesecker LG, Nicholson G, Beg AA, Antonellis A. A loss-of-function variant in the human histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HARS) gene is neurotoxic in vivo. Hum Mutat. 2013 Jan;34(1):191-199. Pubmedid: 22930593. Pmcid: PMC3535524.
  • Hopewell EL, Bronk CC, Massengill M, Engelman RW, Beg AA. IKKβ-induced inflammation impacts the kinetics but not the magnitude of the immune response to a viral vector. Eur J Immunol. 2012 Mar;42(3):681-687. Pubmedid: 22161279. Pmcid: PMC3415707.
  • Bronk CC, Yu XZ, Beg AA. Targeting PKCθ in alloreactivity and graft-versus-host-disease: unanswered questions and therapeutic potential. Front Immunol. 2012;3:259. Pubmedid: 22912640. Pmcid: PMC3418525.
  • Ruan Q, Kameswaran V, Zhang Y, Zheng S, Sun J, Wang J, DeVirgiliis J, Liou HC, Beg AA, Chen YH. The Th17 immune response is controlled by the Rel-RORγ-RORγ T transcriptional axis. J Exp Med. 2011 Oct;208(11):2321-2333. Pubmedid: 22006976. Pmcid: PMC3201209.
  • Balachandran S, Beg AA. Defining emerging roles for NF-κB in antivirus responses: revisiting the interferon-β enhanceosome paradigm. PLoS Pathog. 2011 Oct;7(10):e1002165. Pubmedid: 22022260. Pmcid: PMC3192840.
  • Basagoudanavar SH, Thapa RJ, Nogusa S, Wang J, Beg AA, Balachandran S. Distinct roles for the NF-kappa B RelA subunit during antiviral innate immune responses. J Virol. 2011 Mar;85(6):2599-2610. Pubmedid: 21209118. Pmcid: PMC3067974.
  • Thapa RJ, Basagoudanavar SH, Nogusa S, Irrinki K, Mallilankaraman K, Slifker MJ, Beg AA, Madesh M, Balachandran S. NF-kappaB protects cells from gamma interferon-induced RIP1-dependent necroptosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2011 Jul;31(14):2934-2946. Pubmedid: 21576359. Pmcid: PMC3133390.
  • Mauro C, Leow SC, Anso E, Rocha S, Thotakura AK, Tornatore L, Moretti M, De Smaele E, Beg AA, Tergaonkar V, Chandel NS, Franzoso G. NF-κB controls energy homeostasis and metabolic adaptation by upregulating mitochondrial respiration. Nat Cell Biol. 2011 Aug;13(10):1272-1279. Pubmedid: 21968997. Pmcid: PMC3462316.
  • Ju J, Naura AS, Errami Y, Zerfaoui M, Kim H, Kim JG, Abd Elmageed ZY, Abdel-Mageed AB, Giardina C, Beg AA, Smulson ME, Boulares AH. Phosphorylation of p50 NF-kappaB at a single serine residue by DNA-dependent protein kinase is critical for VCAM-1 expression upon TNF treatment. J Biol Chem. 2010 Dec;285(52):41152-41160. Pubmedid: 20966071. Pmcid: PMC3003413.
  • Scheiffele P, Beg AA. Neuroscience: Angelman syndrome connections. Nature. 2010 Dec;468(7326):907-908. Pubmedid: 21164477.
  • Wang J, Basagoudanavar SH, Wang X, Hopewell E, Albrecht R, García-Sastre A, Balachandran S, Beg AA. NF-kappa B RelA subunit is crucial for early IFN-beta expression and resistance to RNA virus replication. J Immunol. 2010 Aug;185(3):1720-1729. Pubmedid: 20610653. Pmcid: PMC2910841.
  • Vang KB, Yang J, Pagán AJ, Li LX, Wang J, Green JM, Beg AA, Farrar MA. Cutting edge: CD28 and c-Rel-dependent pathways initiate regulatory T cell development. J Immunol. 2010 Apr;184(8):4074-4077. Pubmedid: 20228198. Pmcid: PMC2851483.
  • Plumlee CR, Lee C, Beg AA, Decker T, Shuman HA, Schindler C. Interferons direct an effective innate response to Legionella pneumophila infection. J Biol Chem. 2009 Oct;284(44):30058-30066. Pubmedid: 19720834. Pmcid: PMC2781560.
  • Wang J, Jacob NK, Ladner KJ, Beg A, Perko JD, Tanner SM, Liyanarachchi S, Fishel R, Guttridge DC. RelA/p65 functions to maintain cellular senescence by regulating genomic stability and DNA repair. EMBO Rep. 2009 Nov;10(11):1272-1278. Pubmedid: 19779484. Pmcid: PMC2775178.
  • Ni HM, Chen X, Shi YH, Liao Y, Beg AA, Fan J, Yin XM. Genetic delineation of the pathways mediated by bid and JNK in tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced liver injury in adult and embryonic mice. J Biol Chem. 2009 Feb;284(7):4373-4382. Pubmedid: 19060338. Pmcid: PMC2640960.
  • Valenzuela JO, Iclozan C, Hossain MS, Prlic M, Hopewell E, Bronk CC, Wang J, Celis E, Engelman RW, Blazar BR, Bevan MJ, Waller EK, Yu XZ, Beg AA. PKCtheta is required for alloreactivity and GVHD but not for immune responses toward leukemia and infection in mice. J Clin Invest. 2009 Dec;119(12):3774-3786. Pubmedid: 19907075. Pmcid: PMC2786796.
  • Yarde DN, Oliveira V, Mathews L, Wang X, Villagra A, Boulware D, Shain KH, Hazlehurst LA, Alsina M, Chen DT, Beg AA, Dalton WS. Targeting the Fanconi anemia/BRCA pathway circumvents drug resistance in multiple myeloma. Cancer Res. 2009 Dec;69(24):9367-9375. Pubmedid: 19934314. Pmcid: PMC4519834.
  • Beg AA, Ernstrom GG, Nix P, Davis MW, Jorgensen EM. Protons act as a transmitter for muscle contraction in C. elegans. Cell. 2008 Jan;132(1):149-160. Pubmedid: 18191228. Pmcid: PMC2258244.
  • Beg AA, Sommer JE, Martin JH, Scheiffele P. alpha2-Chimaerin is an essential EphA4 effector in the assembly of neuronal locomotor circuits. Neuron. 2007 Sep;55(5):768-778. Pubmedid: 17785183.
  • Nefedova Y, Fishman M, Sherman S, Wang X, Beg A, Gabrilovich D. Mechanism of all-trans retinoic acid effect on tumor-associated myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Cancer Res. 2007 Nov;67(22):11021-11028. Pubmedid: 18006848.
  • Wang X, Hussain S, Wang E, Wang X, Li M, Garcia-Sastre A, Beg A. Lack of essential role of NF-kappa B p50, RelA, and cRel subunits in virus-induced type 1 IFN expression. J Immunol. 2007 Jun;178(11):6770-6776. Pubmedid: 17513724.
  • Wang J, Wang X, Hussain S, Zheng Y, Sanjabi S, Ouaaz F, Beg A. Distinct roles of different NF-kappa B subunits in regulating inflammatory and T cell stimulatory gene expression in dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2007 Jun;178(11):6777-6788. Pubmedid: 17513725.
  • Chen X, Ding WX, Ni HM, Gao W, Shi YH, Gambotto AA, Fan J, Beg AA, Yin XM. Bid-independent mitochondrial activation in tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis and liver injury. Mol Cell Biol. 2007 Jan;27(2):541-553. Pubmedid: 17101783. Pmcid: PMC1800794.
  • Acharyya S, Villalta SA, Bakkar N, Bupha-Intr T, Janssen PM, Carathers M, Li ZW, Beg AA, Ghosh S, Sahenk Z, Weinstein M, Gardner KL, Rafael-Fortney JA, Karin M, Tidball JG, Baldwin AS, Guttridge DC. Interplay of IKK/NF-kappaB signaling in macrophages and myofibers promotes muscle degeneration in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. J Clin Invest. 2007 Apr;117(4):889-901. Pubmedid: 17380205. Pmcid: PMC1821069.
  • Buttery P, Beg A, Chih B, Broder A, Mason C, Scheiffele P. The diacylglycerol-binding protein alpha1-chimaerin regulates dendritic morphology. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Feb;103(6):1924-1929. Pubmedid: 16446429. Pmcid: PMC1413663.
  • Beg A, Scheiffele P. Neuroscience. SUMO wrestles the synapse. Science. 2006 Feb;311(5763):962-963. Pubmedid: 16484483.
  • Nefedova Y, Cheng P, Gilkes D, Blaskovich M, Beg AA, Sebti SM, Gabrilovich DI. Activation of dendritic cells via inhibition of Jak2/STAT3 signaling. J Immunol. 2005 Oct;175(7):4338-4346. Pubmedid: 16177074. Pmcid: PMC1351251.
  • Cavin LG, Venkatraman M, Factor VM, Kaur S, Schroeder I, Mercurio F, Beg AA, Thorgeirsson SS, Arsura M. Regulation of alpha-fetoprotein by nuclear factor-kappaB protects hepatocytes from tumor necrosis factor-alpha cytotoxicity during fetal liver development and hepatic oncogenesis. Cancer Res. 2004 Oct;64(19):7030-7038. Pubmedid: 15466196.
  • Saccani S, Marazzi I, Beg AA, Natoli G. Degradation of promoter-bound p65/RelA is essential for the prompt termination of the nuclear factor kappaB response. J Exp Med. 2004 Jul;200(1):107-113. Pubmedid: 15226358. Pmcid: PMC2213320.
  • Schuske K, Beg A, Jorgensen E. The GABA nervous system in C. elegans. Trends Neurosci. 2004 Jul;27(7):407-414. Pubmedid: 15219740.
  • Beg A. ComPPARtmentalizing NF-kappaB in the gut. Nat Immunol. 2004;5(1):14-16. Pubmedid: 14699401.
  • Qu J, Li X, Novitch BG, Zheng Y, Kohn M, Xie JM, Kozinn S, Bronson R, Beg AA, Minden A. PAK4 kinase is essential for embryonic viability and for proper neuronal development. Mol Cell Biol. 2003 Oct;23(20):7122-7133. Pubmedid: 14517283. Pmcid: PMC230313.
  • Beg AA, Jorgensen EM. EXP-1 is an excitatory GABA-gated cation channel. Nat Neurosci. 2003 Nov;6(11):1145-1152. Pubmedid: 14555952.
  • Zheng Y, Vig M, Lyons J, Van Parijs L, Beg AA. Combined deficiency of p50 and cRel in CD4+ T cells reveals an essential requirement for nuclear factor kappaB in regulating mature T cell survival and in vivo function. J Exp Med. 2003 Apr;197(7):861-874. Pubmedid: 12668645. Pmcid: PMC2193891.
  • Prendes M, Zheng Y, Beg A. Regulation of developing B cell survival by RelA-containing NF-kappa B complexes. J Immunol. 2003;171(8):3963-3969. Pubmedid: 14530314.
  • Beg A. Endogenous ligands of Toll-like receptors: implications for regulating inflammatory and immune responses. Trends Immunol. 2002 Nov.23(11):509-512. Pubmedid: 12401394.
  • Ouaaz F, Arron J, Zheng Y, Choi Y, Beg A. Dendritic cell development and survival require distinct NF-kappaB subunits. Immunity. 2002 Feb;16(2):257-270. Pubmedid: 11869686.
  • Tao X, Xu Y, Zheng Y, Beg A, Tong L. An extensively associated dimer in the structure of the C713S mutant of the TIR domain of human TLR2. Biochem Bioph Res Co. 2002;299(2):216-221. Pubmedid: 12437972.
  • Li M, Carpio D, Zheng Y, Bruzzo P, Singh V, Ouaaz F, Medzhitov R, Beg A. An essential role of the NF-kappa B/Toll-like receptor pathway in induction of inflammatory and tissue-repair gene expression by necrotic cells. J Immunol. 2001 Jun;166(12):7128-7135. Pubmedid: 11390458.
  • Li M, Shillinglaw W, Henzel W, Beg A. The Rela(p65) subunit of NF-kappaB is essential for inhibiting double-stranded RNA-induced cytotoxicity. J Biol Chem. 2001 Jan;276(2):1185-1194. Pubmedid: 11035014.
  • Alcamo E, Mizgerd J, Horwitz B, Bronson R, Beg A, Scott M, Doerschuk C, Hynes R, Baltimore D. Targeted mutation of TNF receptor I rescues the RelA-deficient mouse and reveals a critical role for NF-kappa B in leukocyte recruitment. J Immunol. 2001 Aug;167(3):1592-1600. Pubmedid: 11466381.
  • Zheng Y, Ouaaz F, Bruzzo P, Singh V, Gerondakis S, Beg A. NF-kappa B RelA (p65) is essential for TNF-alpha-induced fas expression but dispensable for both TCR-induced expression and activation-induced cell death. J Immunol. 2001 Apr;166(8):4949-4957. Pubmedid: 11290773.
  • Bitzer M, von Gersdorff G, Liang D, Dominguez-Rosales A, Beg AA, Rojkind M, Böttinger EP. A mechanism of suppression of TGF-beta/SMAD signaling by NF-kappa B/RelA. Gene Dev. 2000 Jan;14(2):187-197. Pubmedid: 10652273. Pmcid: PMC316349.
  • Wang X, Li M, Zheng H, Muster T, Palese P, Beg A, Garcia-Sastre A. Influenza A virus NS1 protein prevents activation of NF-kappaB and induction of alpha/beta interferon. J Virol. 2000 Dec;74(24):11566-11573. Pubmedid: 11090154. Pmcid: PMC112437.
  • Li M, Beg AA. Induction of necrotic-like cell death by tumor necrosis factor alpha and caspase inhibitors: novel mechanism for killing virus-infected cells. J Virol. 2000 Aug;74(16):7470-7477. Pubmedid: 10906200. Pmcid: PMC112267.
  • Ouaaz F, Li M, Beg A. A critical role for the RelA subunit of nuclear factor kappaB in regulation of multiple immune-response genes and in Fas-induced cell death. J Exp Med. 1999 Mar;189(6):999-1004. Pubmedid: 10075983. Pmcid: PMC2193051.
  • Bamber B, Beg A, Twyman R, Jorgensen E. The Caenorhabditis elegans unc-49 locus encodes multiple subunits of a heteromultimeric GABA receptor. J Neurosci. 1999 Jul;19(13):5348-5359. Pubmedid: 10377345. Pmcid: PMC6782323.
  • Finco T, Westwick J, Norris J, Beg A, Der C, Baldwin AS J. Oncogenic Ha-Ras-induced signaling activates NF-kappaB transcriptional activity, which is required for cellular transformation. J Biol Chem. 1997 Sep;272(39):24113-24116. Pubmedid: 09305854.
  • Beg A, Baltimore D. An essential role for NF-kappaB in preventing TNF-alpha-induced cell death. Science. 1996 Nov;274(5288):782-784. Pubmedid: 08864118.
  • Beg AA, Sha WC, Bronson RT, Baltimore D. Constitutive NF-kappa B activation, enhanced granulopoiesis, and neonatal lethality in I kappa B alpha-deficient mice. Gene Dev. 1995 Nov;9(22):2736-2746. Pubmedid: 7590249.
  • Beg A, Sha W, Bronson R, Ghosh S, Baltimore D. Embryonic lethality and liver degeneration in mice lacking the RelA component of NF-kappa B. Nature. 1995 Jul;376(6536):167-170. Pubmedid: 07603567.
  • Baltimore D, Beg A. DNA-binding proteins. A butterfly flutters by. Nature. 1995 Jan;373(6512):287-288. Pubmedid: 07830761.
  • Beg A, Baldwin AS J. Activation of multiple NF-kappa B/Rel DNA-binding complexes by tumor necrosis factor. Oncogene. 1994 May;9(5):1487-1492. Pubmedid: 08152812.
  • Finco TS, Beg AA, Baldwin AS. Inducible phosphorylation of I kappa B alpha is not sufficient for its dissociation from NF-kappa B and is inhibited by protease inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Dec;91(25):11884-11888. Pubmedid: 7991551. Pmcid: PMC45340.
  • Scheinman RI, Beg AA, Baldwin AS. NF-kappa B p100 (Lyt-10) is a component of H2TF1 and can function as an I kappa B-like molecule. Mol Cell Biol. 1993 Oct;13(10):6089-6101. Pubmedid: 8413211. Pmcid: PMC364669.
  • Beg A, Baldwin AS J. The I kappa B proteins: multifunctional regulators of Rel/NF-kappa B transcription factors. Genes Dev. 1993 Nov;7(11):2064-2070. Pubmedid: 08224838.
  • Beg AA, Finco TS, Nantermet PV, Baldwin AS. Tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 lead to phosphorylation and loss of I kappa B alpha: a mechanism for NF-kappa B activation. Mol Cell Biol. 1993 Jun;13(6):3301-3310. Pubmedid: 8497253. Pmcid: PMC359784.
  • Beg AA, Ruben SM, Scheinman RI, Haskill S, Rosen CA, Baldwin AS. I kappa B interacts with the nuclear localization sequences of the subunits of NF-kappa B: a mechanism for cytoplasmic retention. Gene Dev. 1992 Oct;6(10):1899-1913. Pubmedid: 1340770.
  • Baldwin AS, Azizkhan JC, Jensen DE, Beg AA, Coodly LR. Induction of NF-kappa B DNA-binding activity during the G0-to-G1 transition in mouse fibroblasts. Mol Cell Biol. 1991 Oct;11(10):4943-4951. Pubmedid: 1922027. Pmcid: PMC361472.
  • Haskill S, Beg AA, Tompkins SM, Morris JS, Yurochko AD, Sampson-Johannes A, Mondal K, Ralph P, Baldwin AS. Characterization of an immediate-early gene induced in adherent monocytes that encodes I kappa B-like activity. Cell. 1991 Jun;65(7):1281-1289. Pubmedid: 1829648.