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Ahmad Tarhini, MD, PhD

Academic Rank: Senior Member

Overview

As a clinical and translational physician-scientist, a major objective of Dr Tarhini's research has been the pursuit of studies that test novel targeted therapeutic strategies selected on the basis of a continuously deepening understanding of the molecular circuitry and immune biology of melanoma. This is in addition to a research focus upon the testing of predictors of response to immunotherapeutic agents and prognostic biomarkers of disease outcome. He has also been recently interested in health economics and outcomes research. He achieved independence early on in his career through novel investigator-initiated clinical and translational studies, leadership of national US Cooperative Group studies and NIH-funded translational projects that he heavily invested within the University of Pittsburgh's Skin Spore Grant where he has served for 10 years as Project Co-leader of the Biomarker Skin Spore Project. He also served as the principal investigator of the Experimental Therapeutics Clinical Trials Network (ETCTN) grant at Case Comprehensive Cancer Center. His original work on immunotherapy of melanoma and biomarkers of disease prognosis and therapeutic benefit has been published in high-impact, peer-reviewed journals and presented at leading national/international meetings. He currently serves as a chair/co-chair on several cooperative group trials, including U.S. Intergroup clinical trials E1609, S1404, EA6141, E3612, E3611, NCI8628, NCI10061 and EA6194. His efforts were awarded by being presented the 2009 University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute Junior Scholar Award in Clinical Research and the 2010 Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) Research and Education Foundation Young Investigator Award. He has recently served as a Track Leader of ASCO's Cancer Education Committee Melanoma/Skin Cancers Track and a member of the Scientific Committee. He is currently an Organizer of the 2019 Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) annual meeting. Moffitt Cancer Center


Discipline

    • Cutaneous Oncology
    • Immunology
    • Melanoma Research Center of Excellence
    • Chemical Biology and Molecular Medicine Program

Education & Training

Board Certification:

  • Medical Oncology

Fellowship:

  • University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Hematology and Oncology - Hematology and Oncology
  • University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Internal Medicine - Internal Medicine
  • Kaunas University of Medicine in Lithuania, MD -
  • University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PhD - Clinical and Translation Science
Research

As a clinical and translational physician-scientist, a major objective of Dr Tarhini’s research has been the pursuit of studies that test novel targeted therapeutic strategies selected on the basis of a continuously deepening understanding of the molecular circuitry and immune biology of melanoma. This is in addition to a research focus upon the testing of predictors of response to immunotherapeutic agents and prognostic biomarkers of disease outcome. He has also been recently interested in health economics and outcomes research. He achieved independence early on in his career through novel investigator-initiated clinical and translational studies, leadership of national US Cooperative Group studies and NIH-funded translational projects that he heavily invested within the University of Pittsburgh’s Skin Spore Grant where he has served for 10 years as Project Co-leader of the Biomarker Skin Spore Project. He also served as the principal investigator of the Experimental Therapeutics Clinical Trials Network (ETCTN) grant at Case Comprehensive Cancer Center. His original work on immunotherapy of melanoma and biomarkers of disease prognosis and therapeutic benefit has been published in high-impact, peer-reviewed journals and presented at leading national/international meetings. He currently serves as a chair/co-chair on several cooperative group trials, including U.S. Intergroup clinical trials E1609, S1404, EA6141, E3612, E3611, NCI8628, NCI10061 and EA6194. His efforts were awarded by being presented the 2009 University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute Junior Scholar Award in Clinical Research and the 2010 Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) Research and Education Foundation Young Investigator Award. He has recently served as a Track Leader of ASCO’s Cancer Education Committee Melanoma/Skin Cancers Track and a member of the Scientific Committee. He is currently an Organizer of the 2019 Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) annual meeting. Moffitt Cancer Center  

Publications

  • Edgar RH, Tarhini A, Sander C, Sanders ME, Cook JL, Viator JA. Predicting Metastasis in Melanoma by Enumerating Circulating Tumor Cells Using Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry. Lasers Surg Med. 2020 Jun. Pubmedid: 32557708.
  • Wu RC, Newman W, Patanowitz L, Branstetter BF, Amankulor N, Tarhini AA. Long-term control of leptomeningeal disease after radiation therapy and nivolumab in a metastatic melanoma patient. Immunotherapy. 2020 Jun.12(11):763-769. Pubmedid: 32571131. Pmcid: PMC7421879.
  • Puzanov I, Ribas A, Robert C, Schachter J, Nyakas M, Daud A, Arance A, Carlino MS, O'Day SJ, Long GV, Margolin KA, Dummer R, Schadendorf D, Lutzky J, Ascierto PA, Tarhini A, Lin J, Mogg R, Homet Moreno B, Ibrahim N, Hamid O. Association of BRAF V600E/K Mutation Status and Prior BRAF/MEK Inhibition With Pembrolizumab Outcomes in Advanced Melanoma: Pooled Analysis of 3 Clinical Trials. JAMA Oncol. 2020 Jul.6(8):1256-1264. Pubmedid: 32672795. Pmcid: PMC7366279.
  • Tarhini AA, Lee SJ, Hodi FS, Rao UNM, Cohen GI, Hamid O, Hutchins LF, Sosman JA, Kluger HM, Eroglu Z, Koon HB, Lawrence DP, Kendra KL, Minor DR, Lee CB, Albertini MR, Flaherty LE, Petrella TM, Streicher H, Sondak VK, Kirkwood JM. Phase III Study of Adjuvant Ipilimumab (3 or 10 mg/kg) Versus High-Dose Interferon Alfa-2b for Resected High-Risk Melanoma: North American Intergroup E1609. J Clin Oncol. 2020 Feb.38(6):567-575. Pubmedid: 31880964. Pmcid: PMC7030886.
  • Jiang C, Wallington DG, Anker CJ, Lawson DH, Yushak ML, Kudchadkar RR, Tarhini A, Khan MK. Changing Therapeutic Landscape for Melanoma With Multiple Brain Metastases. Neurosurgery. 2020 Apr.87(3):498-515. Pubmedid: 32315430.
  • Regan MM, Werner L, Rao S, Gupte-Singh K, Hodi FS, Kirkwood JM, Kluger HM, Larkin J, Postow MA, Ritchings C, Sznol M, Tarhini AA, Wolchok JD, Atkins MB, McDermott DF. Treatment-Free Survival: A Novel Outcome Measure of the Effects of Immune Checkpoint Inhibition-A Pooled Analysis of Patients With Advanced Melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2019 Sep.37(35):3350-3358. Pubmedid: 31498030. Pmcid: PMC6901280.
  • Tarhini A, Atzinger C, Gupte-Singh K, Johnson C, Macahilig C, Rao S. Treatment patterns and outcomes for patients with unresectable stage III and metastatic melanoma in the USA. J Comp Eff Res. 2019 May.8(7):461-473. Pubmedid: 30832505.
  • Atkins MB, Tarhini A, Rael M, Gupte-Singh K, O'Brien E, Ritchings C, Rao S, McDermott DF. Comparative efficacy of combination immunotherapy and targeted therapy in the treatment of BRAF-mutant advanced melanoma: a matching-adjusted indirect comparison. Immunotherapy. 2019 May.11(7):617-629. Pubmedid: 30852924.
  • Ko JS, Gastman BR, Conic R, Tellez Diaz Trujillo A, Diaz-Montero CM, Billings SD, Tarhini A, Funchain P, Atanaskova Mesinkovska N. Decreased T-Cell Programmed Death Receptor-1 Expression in Pregnancy-Associated Melanoma. Am J Dermatopathxxx. 2019 Mar.41(3):180-187. Pubmedid: 30308543.
  • Tarhini A, McDermott D, Ambavane A, Gupte-Singh K, Aponte-Ribero V, Ritchings C, Benedict A, Rao S, Regan MM, Atkins M. Clinical and economic outcomes associated with treatment sequences in patients with BRAF-mutant advanced melanoma. Immunotherapy. 2019 Mar.11(4):283-295. Pubmedid: 30563395.
  • Khunger A, Buchwald ZS, Lowe M, Khan MK, Delman KA, Tarhini AA. Neoadjuvant therapy of locally/regionally advanced melanoma. Ther Adv Med Oncol. 2019 Jul.11. Pubmedid: 31391869. Pmcid: PMC6669845.
  • Tarhini AA, Lee SJ, Li X, Rao UNM, Nagarajan A, Albertini MR, Mitchell JW, Wong SJ, Taylor MA, Laudi N, Truong PV, Conry RM, Kirkwood JM. E3611-A Randomized Phase II Study of Ipilimumab at 3 or 10 mg/kg Alone or in Combination with High-Dose Interferon-α2b in Advanced Melanoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2019 Jan.25(2):524-532. Pubmedid: 30420448. Pmcid: PMC6335150.
  • Patil PD, Fernandez AP, Velcheti V, Tarhini A, Funchain P, Rini B, Khasawneh M, Pennell NA. Cases from the irAE Tumor Board: A Multidisciplinary Approach to a Patient Treated with Immune Checkpoint Blockade Who Presented with a New Rash. Oncologist. 2019 Jan.24(1):4-8. Pubmedid: 30355774. Pmcid: PMC6324641.
  • Tarhini A, Ghate S, Ionescu-Ittu R, Shi S, Nakasato A, Ndife B, Laliberté F, Burne R, Duh MS. Stage III melanoma incidence and impact of transitioning to the 8th AJCC staging system: a US population-based study. Future Oncol. 2019 Feb.15(4):359-370. Pubmedid: 30317881.
  • Sharma R, Koruth R, Kanters S, Druyts E, Tarhini A. Comparative efficacy and safety of dabrafenib in combination with trametinib versus competing adjuvant therapies for high-risk melanoma. J Comp Eff Res. 2019 Dec.8(16):1349-1363. Pubmedid: 31778073.
  • Xu LT, Funchain PF, Bena JF, Li M, Tarhini A, Berber E, Singh AD. Uveal Melanoma Metastatic to the Liver: Treatment Trends and Outcomes. Ocul Oncol Pathol. 2019 Aug.5(5):323-332. Pubmedid: 31559243. Pmcid: PMC6751472.
  • Khunger A, Rytlewski JA, Fields P, Yusko EC, Tarhini AA. The impact of CTLA-4 blockade and interferon-α on clonality of T-cell repertoire in the tumor microenvironment and peripheral blood of metastatic melanoma patients. Oncoimmunology. 2019 Aug.8(11):e1652538. Pubmedid: 31646098. Pmcid: PMC6791420.
  • Butterfield LH, Vujanovic L, Santos PM, Maurer DM, Gambotto A, Lohr J, Li C, Waldman J, Chandran U, Lin Y, Lin H, Tawbi HA, Tarhini AA, Kirkwood JM. Multiple antigen-engineered DC vaccines with or without IFNα to promote antitumor immunity in melanoma. J Immunother Cancer. 2019 Apr.7(1):113. Pubmedid: 31014399. Pmcid: PMC6480917.
  • Carlino MS, Long GV, Schadendorf D, Robert C, Ribas A, Richtig E, Nyakas M, Caglevic C, Tarhini A, Blank C, Hoeller C, Bar-Sela G, Barrow C, Wolter P, Zhou H, Emancipator K, Jensen EH, Ebbinghaus S, Ibrahim N, Daud A. Outcomes by line of therapy and programmed death ligand 1 expression in patients with advanced melanoma treated with pembrolizumab or ipilimumab in KEYNOTE-006: A randomised clinical trial. Eur J Cancer. 2018 Sep.101:236-243. Pubmedid: 30096704.
  • Davar D, Wang H, Chauvin JM, Pagliano O, Fourcade JJ, Ka M, Menna C, Rose A, Sander C, Borhani AA, Karunamurthy A, Tarhini AA, Tawbi HA, Zhao Q, Moreno BH, Ebbinghaus S, Ibrahim N, Kirkwood JM, Zarour HM. Phase Ib/II Study of Pembrolizumab and Pegylated-Interferon Alfa-2b in Advanced Melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2018 Oct.JCO1800632. Pubmedid: 30359157. Pmcid: PMC6286160.
  • Tarhini AA, Lorigan P, Leachman S. Operable Melanoma: Screening, Prognostication, and Adjuvant and Neoadjuvant Therapy. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2018 Oct.37:651-660. Pubmedid: 28561661.
  • Tarhini A, Benedict A, McDermott D, Rao S, Ambavane A, Gupte-Singh K, Sabater J, Ritchings C, Aponte-Ribero V, Regan MM, Atkins M. Sequential treatment approaches in  the management of BRAF wild-type advanced melanoma: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Immunotherapy. 2018 Oct.10(14):1241-1252. Pubmedid: 30175642.
  • Tarhini A, Lin Y, Lin H, Rahman Z, Vallabhaneni P, Mendiratta P, Pingpank JF, Holtzman MP, Yusko EC, Rytlewski JA, Rao UNM, Ferris RL, Kirkwood JM. Neoadjuvant ipilimumab (3 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg) and high dose IFN-α2b in locally/regionally advanced melanoma: safety, efficacy and impact on T-cell repertoire. J Immunother Cancer. 2018 Oct.6(1):112. Pubmedid: 30352626. Pmcid: PMC6199801.
  • Tarhini AA, Frankel P, Ruel C, Ernstoff MS, Kuzel TM, Logan TF, Khushalani NI, Tawbi HA, Margolin KA, Awasthi S, Butterfield LH, McDermott D, Chen A, Lara PN, Kirkwood JM. NCI 8628: A randomized phase 2 study of ziv-aflibercept and high-dose interleukin 2 or high-dose interleukin 2 alone for inoperable stage III or IV melanoma. Cancer. 2018 Nov.124(22):4332-4341. Pubmedid: 30303516. Pmcid: PMC6504933.
  • Funchain P, Tarhini AA. Using Genomic Sequencing to Improve Management in Melanoma. Oncology (Williston Park). 2018 Mar.32(3):98-101, 104. Pubmedid: 29548064.
  • Tahata S, Singh SV, Lin Y, Hahm ER, Beumer JH, Christner SM, Rao UN, Sander C, Tarhini AA, Tawbi H, Ferris LK, Wilson M, Rose A, Dietz CM, Hughes E, Fahey JW, Leachman SA, Cassidy PB, Butterfield LH, Zarour HM, Kirkwood JM. Evaluation of Biodistribution of Sulforaphane after Administration of Oral Broccoli Sprout Extract in Melanoma Patients with Multiple Atypical Nevi. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2018 Jun.11(7):429-438. Pubmedid: 29691233. Pmcid: PMC6030491.
  • Retseck J, Nasr A, Lin Y, Lin H, Mendiratta P, Butterfield LH, Tarhini AA. Long term impact of CTLA4 blockade immunotherapy on regulatory and effector immune responses in patients with melanoma. J Transl Med. 2018 Jul.16(1):184. Pubmedid: 29973204. Pmcid: PMC6033230.
  • Kano H, Morales-Restrepo A, Iyer A, Weiner GM, Mousavi SH, Kirkwood JM, Tarhini AA, Flickinger JC, Lunsford LD. Comparison of prognostic indices in patients who undergo melanoma brain metastasis radiosurgery. J Neurosurg. 2018 Jan.128(1):14-22. Pubmedid: 28106495.
  • D'Angelo SP, Hamid OA, Tarhini A, Schadendorf D, Chmielowski B, Collichio FA, Pavlick AC, Lewis KD, Weil SC, Heyburn J, Schweizer C, O'Shannessy DJ, Carvajal RD. A phase 2 study of ontuxizumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting endosialin, in metastatic melanoma. Invest New Drugs. 2018 Feb.36(1):103-113. Pubmedid: 29127533.
  • Tarhini A, Ghate SR, Ionescu-Ittu R, Manceur AM, Ndife B, Jacques P, Laliberté F, Nakasato A, Burne R, Duh MS. Postsurgical treatment landscape and economic burden of locoregional and distant recurrence in patients with operable nonmetastatic melanoma. Melanoma Res. 2018 Dec.28(6):618-628. Pubmedid: 30216199. Pmcid: PMC6221390.
  • Tarhini A, Kudchadkar RR. Predictive and on-treatment monitoring biomarkers in advanced melanoma: Moving toward personalized medicine. Cancer Treat Rev. 2018 Dec.71:8-18. Pubmedid: 30273812.
  • Tawbi HA, Forsyth PA, Algazi A, Hamid O, Hodi FS, Moschos SJ, Khushalani NI, Lewis K, Lao CD, Postow MA, Atkins MB, Ernstoff MS, Reardon DA, Puzanov I, Kudchadkar RR, Thomas RP, Tarhini A, Pavlick AC, Jiang J, Avila A, Demelo S, Margolin K. Combined Nivolumab and Ipilimumab in Melanoma Metastatic to the Brain. N Engl J Med. 2018 Aug;379(8):722-730. Pubmedid: 30134131.
  • Benedict Á, Ambavane A, Tarhini A. Comprehensive Reporting in Cost-Effectiveness Modeling. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Sep.35(26):3085-3086. Pubmedid: 28715247.
  • Tarhini AA, Lin Y, Lin HM, Vallabhaneni P, Sander C, LaFramboise W, Hamieh L. Expression profiles of immune-related genes are associated with neoadjuvant ipilimumab clinical benefit. Oncoimmunology. 2017 Sep.6(2):e1231291. Pubmedid: 28344862. Pmcid: PMC5353928.
  • Butterfield LH, Zhao F, Lee S, Tarhini AA, Margolin KA, White RL, Atkins MB, Cohen GI, Whiteside TL, Kirkwood JM, Lawson DH. Immune Correlates of GM-CSF and Melanoma Peptide Vaccination in a Randomized Trial for the Adjuvant Therapy of Resected High-Risk Melanoma (E4697). Clin Cancer Res. 2017 Sep.23(17):5034-5043. Pubmedid: 28536308. Pmcid: PMC5581724.
  • Davar D, Ding F, Saul M, Sander C, Tarhini AA, Kirkwood JM, Tawbi HA. High-dose interleukin-2 (HD IL-2) for advanced melanoma: a single center experience from the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute. J Immunother Cancer. 2017 Sep.5(1):74. Pubmedid: 28923120. Pmcid: PMC5604296.
  • Davar D, Tarhini AA, Kirkwood JM. Erratum to Adjuvant immunotherapy of melanoma and development of new approaches using the neoadjuvant approach. Clin Dermatol. 2017 Nov.31(4):501. Pubmedid: 29100579.
  • Agha A, Tarhini AA. Adjuvant Therapy for Melanoma. Curr Oncol Rep. 2017 May.19(5):36. Pubmedid: 28417343.
  • Agarwala SS, Lee SJ, Yip W, Rao UN, Tarhini AA, Cohen GI, Reintgen DS, Evans TL, Brell JM, Albertini MR, Atkins MB, Dakhil SR, Conry RM, Sosman JA, Flaherty LE, Sondak VK, Carson WE, Smylie MG, Pappo AS, Kefford RF, Kirkwood JM. Phase III Randomized Study of 4 Weeks of High-Dose Interferon-α-2b in Stage T2bNO, T3a-bNO, T4a-bNO, and T1-4N1a-2a (microscopic) Melanoma: A Trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-American College of Radiology Imaging Network Cancer Research Gr. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Mar;35(8):885-892. Pubmedid: 28135150. Pmcid: PMC5455684.
  • Johnson MM, Leachman SA, Aspinwall LG, Cranmer LD, Curiel-Lewandrowski C, Sondak VK, Stemwedel CE, Swetter SM, Vetto J, Bowles T, Dellavalle RP, Geskin LJ, Grossman D, Grossmann KF, Hawkes JE, Jeter JM, Kim CC, Kirkwood JM, Mangold AR, Meyskens F, Ming ME, Nelson KC, Piepkorn M, Pollack BP, Robinson JK, Sober AJ, Trotter S, Venna SS, Agarwala S, Alani R, Averbook B, Bar A, Becevic M, Box N, E Carson W, Cassidy PB, Chen SC, Chu EY, Ellis DL, Ferris LK, Fisher DE, Kendra K, Lawson DH, Leming PD, Margolin KA, Markovic S, Martini MC, Miller D, Sahni D, Sharfman WH, Stein J, Stratigos AJ, Tarhini A, Taylor MH, Wisco OJ, Wong MK. Skin cancer screening: recommendations for data-driven screening guidelines and a review of the US Preventive Services Task Force controversy. Melanoma Manag. 2017 Mar.4(1):13-37. Pubmedid: 28758010. Pmcid: PMC5480135.
  • Kalinsky K, Lee S, Rubin KM, Lawrence DP, Iafrarte AJ, Borger DR, Margolin KA, Leitao MM, Tarhini AA, Koon HB, Pecora AL, Jaslowski AJ, Cohen GI, Kuzel TM, Lao CD, Kirkwood JM. A phase 2 trial of dasatinib in patients with locally advanced or stage IV mucosal, acral, or vulvovaginal melanoma: A trial of the ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group (E2607). Cancer. 2017 Jul.123(14):2688-2697. Pubmedid: 28334439. Pmcid: PMC5498223.
  • Najjar YG, Ding F, Lin Y, VanderWeele R, Butterfield LH, Tarhini AA. Melanoma antigen-specific effector T cell cytokine secretion patterns in patients treated with ipilimumab. J Transl Med. 2017 Feb.15(1):39. Pubmedid: 28222797. Pmcid: PMC5319167.
  • Tarhini AA, Rafique I, Floros T, Tran P, Gooding WE, Villaruz LC, Burns TF, Friedland DM, Petro DP, Farooqui M, Gomez-Garcia J, Gaither-Davis A, Dacic S, Argiris A, Socinski MA, Stabile LP, Siegfried JM. Phase 1/2 study of rilotumumab (AMG 102), a hepatocyte growth factor inhibitor, and erlotinib in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer. 2017 Aug.123(15):2936-2944. Pubmedid: 28472537. Pmcid: PMC5517339.
  • Tarhini AA, Moschos SJ, Lin Y, Lin HM, Sander C, Yin Y, Venhaus R, Gajewski TF, Kirkwood JM. Safety and efficacy of the antiganglioside GD3 antibody ecromeximab (KW2871) combined with high-dose interferon-α2b in patients with metastatic melanoma. Melanoma Res. 2017 Aug.27(4):342-350. Pubmedid: 28489678.
  • Achkar T, Tarhini AA. The use of immunotherapy in the treatment of melanoma. J Hematol Oncol. 2017 Apr.10(1):88. Pubmedid: 28434398. Pmcid: PMC5402170.
  • Ascierto PA, Agarwala S, Botti G, Cesano A, Ciliberto G, Davies MA, Demaria S, Dummer R, Eggermont AM, Ferrone S, Fu YX, Gajewski TF, Garbe C, Huber V, Khleif S, Krauthammer M, Lo RS, Masucci G, Palmieri G, Postow M, Puzanov I, Silk A, Spranger S, Stroncek DF, Tarhini A, Taube JM, Testori A, Wang E, Wargo JA, Yee C, Zarour H, Zitvogel L, Fox BA, Mozzillo N, Marincola FM, Thurin M. Future perspectives in melanoma research : Meeting report from the "Melanoma Bridge". Napoli, December 1st-4th 2015. J Transl Med. 2016 Nov.14(1):313. Pubmedid: 27846884. Pmcid: PMC5111349.
  • Anker CJ, Grossmann KF, Atkins MB, Suneja G, Tarhini AA, Kirkwood JM. Avoiding Severe Toxicity From Combined BRAF Inhibitor and Radiation Treatment: Consensus Guidelines from the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2016 Jun.95(2):632-646. Pubmedid: 27131079. Pmcid: PMC5102246.
  • Retseck J, VanderWeele R, Lin HM, Lin Y, Butterfield LH, Tarhini AA. Phenotypic and functional testing of circulating regulatory T cells in advanced melanoma patients treated with neoadjuvant ipilimumab. J Immunother Cancer. 2016 Jun.4:38. Pubmedid: 27330811. Pmcid: PMC4915044.
  • Mehta K, Appleman L, Wang H, Tarhini AA, Parikh RA. Annual Hospital Volume of High Dose Interleukin-2 and Inpatient Mortality in Melanoma and Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients. PLoS One. 2016 Jan.11(1):e0147153. Pubmedid: 26799322. Pmcid: PMC4723120.
  • Tarhini AA. Immunotherapy of Melanoma. Curr Mol Pharmacol. 2016 Dec.9(3):196-207. Pubmedid: 26177647.
  • Tarhini AA, Tawbi H, Storkus WJ. Vaccine therapy + dasatinib for the treatment of patients with stage IIIB-IV melanoma. Melanoma Manag. 2016 Dec.3(4):251-254. Pubmedid: 30190895. Pmcid: PMC6094598.
  • Boutros C, Tarhini A, Routier E, Lambotte O, Ladurie FL, Carbonnel F, Izzeddine H, Marabelle A, Champiat S, Berdelou A, Lanoy E, Texier M, Libenciuc C, Eggermont AM, Soria JC, Mateus C, Robert C. Safety profiles of anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 antibodies alone and in combination. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2016 Aug.13(8):473-486. Pubmedid: 27141885.
  • Tarhini AA, Zahoor H, Lin Y, Malhotra U, Sander C, Butterfield LH, Kirkwood JM. Baseline circulating IL-17 predicts toxicity while TGF-β1 and IL-10 are prognostic of relapse in ipilimumab neoadjuvant therapy of melanoma. J Immunother Cancer. 2015 Sep.3:39. Pubmedid: 26380086. Pmcid: PMC4570556.
  • Tarhini AA, Zahoor H, Yearley JH, Gibson C, Rahman Z, Dubner R, Rao UN, Sander C, Kirkwood JM. Tumor associated PD-L1 expression pattern in microscopically tumor positive sentinel lymph nodes in patients with melanoma. J Transl Med. 2015 Sep.13:319. Pubmedid: 26419843. Pmcid: PMC4589168.
  • Tarhini AA. Neoadjuvant therapy for melanoma: a promising therapeutic approach and an ideal platform in drug development. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2015 May.e535-e542. Pubmedid: 25993220.
  • Rafique I, Kirkwood JM, Tarhini AA. Immune checkpoint blockade and interferon-α in melanoma. Semin Oncol. 2015 Jun.42(3):436-447. Pubmedid: 25965362. Pmcid: PMC4429252.
  • Tarhini AA, Lin Y, Zahoor H, Shuai Y, Butterfield LH, Ringquist S, Gogas H, Sander C, Lee S, Agarwala SS, Kirwood JM. Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Predict Relapse-Free Survival after One Month of Interferon-α but Not Observation in Intermediate Risk Melanoma Patients. PLoS One. 2015 Jul.10(7):e0132745. Pubmedid: 26192408. Pmcid: PMC4508028.
  • Tarhini AA. Still Leading the Charge in Immunotherapy. Oncology (Williston Park). 2015 Jul.29(7):501-502. Pubmedid: 26178344.
  • Tarhini AA. The future of systemic therapy of melanoma: combinations, predictive biomarkers. Oncology (Williston Park). 2015 Feb.29(2):94, 107. Pubmedid: 25683827.
  • Lawson DH, Lee S, Zhao F, Tarhini AA, Margolin KA, Ernstoff MS, Atkins MB, Cohen GI, Whiteside TL, Butterfield LH, Kirkwood JM. Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Phase III Trial of Yeast-Derived Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) Versus Peptide Vaccination Versus GM-CSF Plus Peptide Vaccination Versus Placebo in Patients With No Evidence of Disease After Compl. J Clin Oncol. 2015 Dec.33(34):4066-4076. Pubmedid: 26351350. Pmcid: PMC4669592.
  • Shin D, Sinha M, Kondziolka DS, Kirkwood JM, Rao UN, Tarhini AA. Intermediate-grade meningeal melanocytoma associated with nevus of Ota: a case report and review of the literature. Melanoma Res. 2015 Aug.25(4):273-278. Pubmedid: 25933209.
  • Tarhini AA. Neoadjuvant therapy in melanoma: the fast track to critical new answers. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol. 2015 Aug.13(8):510-511. Pubmedid: 26351812.
  • Floros T, Tarhini AA. Anticancer Cytokines: Biology and Clinical Effects of Interferon-α2, Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-15, IL-21, and IL-12. Semin Oncol. 2015 Aug.42(4):539-548. Pubmedid: 26320059. Pmcid: PMC4557618.
  • Thalanayar PM, Agarwala SS, Tarhini AA. Melanoma adjuvant therapy. Chin Clin Oncol. 2014 Sep.3(3):26. Pubmedid: 25841453.
  • Dutcher JP, Schwartzentruber DJ, Kaufman HL, Agarwala SS, Tarhini AA, Lowder JN, Atkins MB. High dose interleukin-2 (Aldesleukin) - expert consensus on best management practices-2014. J Immunother Cancer. 2014 Sep.2(1):26. Pubmedid: 31546315. Pmcid: PMC6889624.
  • Hodi FS, Lee S, McDermott DF, Rao UN, Butterfield LH, Tarhini AA, Leming P, Puzanov I, Shin D, Kirkwood JM. Ipilimumab plus sargramostim vs ipilimumab alone for treatment of metastatic melanoma: a randomized clinical trial. Jama. 2014 Nov.312(17):1744-1753. Pubmedid: 25369488. Pmcid: PMC4336189.
  • Wickersham KE, Happ MB, Bender CM, Engberg SJ, Tarhini A, Erlen JA. Surviving with lung cancer: medication-taking and oral targeted therapy. Geriatr Nurs. 2014 Mar.35(2 Suppl):S49-S56. Pubmedid: 24702721. Pmcid: PMC3988629.
  • Davar D, Tarhini AA, Gogas H, Kirkwood JM. Advances in adjuvant therapy: potential for prognostic and predictive biomarkers. Methods Mol Biol. 2014 Jun.1102:45-69. Pubmedid: 24258973.
  • Tarhini AA, Thalanayar PM. Melanoma adjuvant therapy. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2014 Jun.28(3):471-489. Pubmedid: 24880942.
  • Tarhini AA, Lin Y, Yeku O, LaFramboise WA, Ashraf M, Sander C, Lee S, Kirkwood JM. A four-marker signature of TNF-RII, TGF-α, TIMP-1 and CRP is prognostic of worse survival in high-risk surgically resected melanoma. J Transl Med. 2014 Jan.12:19. Pubmedid: 24457057. Pmcid: PMC3909384.
  • Kondziolka D, Parry PV, Lunsford LD, Kano H, Flickinger JC, Rakfal S, Arai Y, Loeffler JS, Rush S, Knisely JP, Sheehan J, Friedman W, Tarhini AA, Francis L, Lieberman F, Ahluwalia MS, Linskey ME, McDermott M, Sperduto P, Stupp R. The accuracy of predicting survival in individual patients with cancer. J Neurosurg. 2014 Jan.120(1):24-30. Pubmedid: 24160479.
  • Fourcade J, Sun Z, Pagliano O, Chauvin JM, Sander C, Janjic B, Tarhini AA, Tawbi HA, Kirkwood JM, Moschos S, Wang H, Guillaume P, Luescher IF, Krieg A, Anderson AC, Kuchroo VK, Zarour HM. PD-1 and Tim-3 regulate the expansion of tumor antigen-specific CD8⁺ T cells induced by melanoma vaccines. Cancer Res. 2014 Feb.74(4):1045-1055. Pubmedid: 24343228. Pmcid: PMC3952491.
  • Tarhini AA, Edington H, Butterfield LH, Lin Y, Shuai Y, Tawbi H, Sander C, Yin Y, Holtzman M, Johnson J, Rao UN, Kirkwood JM. Immune monitoring of the circulation and the tumor microenvironment in patients with regionally advanced melanoma receiving neoadjuvant ipilimumab. PLoS One. 2014 Feb.9(2):e87705. Pubmedid: 24498358. Pmcid: PMC3912016.
  • Tarhini AA, Shin D, Lee SJ, Stuckert J, Sander CA, Kirkwood JM. Serologic evidence of autoimmunity in E2696 and E1694 patients with high-risk melanoma treated with adjuvant interferon alfa. Melanoma Res. 2014 Apr.24(2):150-157. Pubmedid: 24509407. Pmcid: PMC4308690.
  • Ramalingam SS, Kotsakis A, Tarhini AA, Heron DE, Smith R, Friedland D, Petro DP, Raez LE, Brahmer JR, Greenberger JS, Dacic S, Hershberger P, Landreneau RJ, Luketich JD, Belani CP, Argiris A. A multicenter phase II study of cetuximab in combination with chest radiotherapy and consolidation chemotherapy in patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2013 Sep.81(3):416-421. Pubmedid: 23849982.
  • Kaufman HL, Kirkwood JM, Hodi FS, Agarwala S, Amatruda T, Bines SD, Clark JI, Curti B, Ernstoff MS, Gajewski T, Gonzalez R, Hyde LJ, Lawson D, Lotze M, Lutzky J, Margolin K, McDermott DF, Morton D, Pavlick A, Richards JM, Sharfman W, Sondak VK, Sosman J, Steel S, Tarhini A, Thompson JA, Titze J, Urba W, White R, Atkins MB. The Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer consensus statement on tumour immunotherapy for the treatment of cutaneous melanoma. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2013 Oct;10(10):588-598. Pubmedid: 23982524.
  • Tarhini AA, Zahoor H, McLaughlin B, Gooding WE, Schmitz JC, Siegfried JM, Socinski MA, Argiris A. Phase I trial of carboplatin and etoposide in combination with panobinostat in patients with lung cancer. Anticancer Res. 2013 Oct.33(10):4475-4481. Pubmedid: 24123018. Pmcid: PMC4157617.
  • Tarhini A. Immune-mediated adverse events associated with ipilimumab ctla-4 blockade therapy: the underlying mechanisms and clinical management. Scientifica (Cairo). 2013 Nov.2013:857519. Pubmedid: 24278787. Pmcid: PMC3820355.
  • Davar D, Tarhini AA, Kirkwood JM. Adjuvant immunotherapy of melanoma and development of new approaches using the neoadjuvant approach. Clin Dermatol. 2013 May.31(3):237-250. Pubmedid: 23608443. Pmcid: PMC3654101.
  • Tarhini AA. Tremelimumab: a review of development to date in solid tumors. Immunotherapy. 2013 Mar.5(3):215-229. Pubmedid: 23444951.
  • Ascierto PA, Grimaldi AM, Acquavella N, Borgognoni L, Calabrò L, Cascinelli N, Cesano A, Del Vecchio M, Eggermont AM, Faries M, Ferrone S, Fox BA, Gajewski TF, Galon J, Gnjatic S, Gogas H, Kashani-Sabet M, Kaufman HL, Larkin J, Lo RS, Mantovani A, Margolin K, Melief C, McArthur G, Palmieri G, Puzanov I, Ribas A, Seliger B, Sosman J, Suenaert P, Tarhini AA, Trinchieri G, Vidal-Vanaclocha F, Wang E, Ciliberto G, Mozzillo N, Marincola FM, Thurin M. Future perspectives in melanoma research. Meeting report from the "Melanoma Bridge. Napoli, December 2nd-4th 2012". J Transl Med. 2013 Jun.11:137. Pubmedid: 23731854. Pmcid: PMC3681569.
  • Kirkwood JM, Butterfield LH, Tarhini AA, Zarour H, Kalinski P, Ferrone S. Immunotherapy of cancer in 2012. CA-Cancer J Clin. 2013 Jan.62(5):309-335. Pubmedid: 22576456. Pmcid: PMC3445708.
  • Kirkwood JM, Tarhini A, Sparano JA, Patel P, Schiller JH, Vergo MT, Benson Iii AB, Tawbi H. Comparative clinical benefits of systemic adjuvant therapy for paradigm solid tumors. Cancer Treat Rev. 2013 Feb.39(1):27-43. Pubmedid: 22520262.
  • Go RS, Lee SJ, Shin D, Callister SM, Jobe DA, Conry RM, Tarhini AA, Kirkwood JM. ECOG phase II trial of graded-dose peginterferon α-2b in patients with metastatic melanoma overexpressing basic fibroblast growth factor (E2602). Clin Cancer Res. 2013 Dec.19(23):6597-6604. Pubmedid: 24122792. Pmcid: PMC3859372.
  • Tawbi HA, Beumer JH, Tarhini AA, Moschos S, Buch SC, Egorin MJ, Lin Y, Christner S, Kirkwood JM. Safety and efficacy of decitabine in combination with temozolomide in metastatic melanoma: a phase I/II study and pharmacokinetic analysis. Ann Oncol. 2013 Apr.24(4):1112-1119. Pubmedid: 23172636. Pmcid: PMC3603441.
  • Tarhini AA, Gogas H, Kirkwood JM. IFN-α in the treatment of melanoma. J Immunol. 2012 Oct.189(8):3789-3793. Pubmedid: 23042723. Pmcid: PMC4420629.
  • Tarhini AA, Kirkwood JM. How much of a good thing? What duration for interferon alfa-2b adjuvant therapy?. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Nov.30(31):3773-3776. Pubmedid: 23008298.
  • Tarhini AA, Butterfield LH, Shuai Y, Gooding WE, Kalinski P, Kirkwood JM. Differing patterns of circulating regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells in metastatic melanoma patients receiving anti-CTLA4 antibody and interferon-α or TLR-9 agonist and GM-CSF with peptide vaccination. J Immunother. 2012 Nov.35(9):702-710. Pubmedid: 23090079. Pmcid: PMC3513773.
  • Tarhini AA, Leng S, Moschos SJ, Yin Y, Sander C, Lin Y, Gooding WE, Kirkwood JM. Safety and immunogenicity of vaccination with MART-1 (26-35, 27L), gp100 (209-217, 210M), and tyrosinase (368-376, 370D) in adjuvant with PF-3512676 and GM-CSF in metastatic melanoma. J Immunother. 2012 May.35(4):359-366. Pubmedid: 22495394. Pmcid: PMC3483091.
  • Foon KA, Mehta D, Lentzsch S, Kropf P, Marks S, Lenzner D, Pietragallo L, Sulecki M, Tarhini A, Boyiadzis M. Long-term results of chemoimmunotherapy with low-dose fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and high-dose rituximab as initial treatment for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood. 2012 Mar.119(13):3184-3185. Pubmedid: 22461474.
  • Davar D, Tarhini AA, Kirkwood JM. Adjuvant therapy for melanoma. Cancer J. 2012 Mar.18(2):192-202. Pubmedid: 22453021. Pmcid: PMC3478763.
  • Tarhini AA, Cherian J, Moschos SJ, Tawbi HA, Shuai Y, Gooding WE, Sander C, Kirkwood JM. Safety and efficacy of combination immunotherapy with interferon alfa-2b and tremelimumab in patients with stage IV melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Jan.30(3):322-328. Pubmedid: 22184371. Pmcid: PMC3422533.
  • Davar D, Tarhini A, Kirkwood JM. Adjuvant therapy: melanoma. J Skin Cancer. 2012 Aug.2011:274382. Pubmedid: 22220281. Pmcid: PMC3246753.
  • Tawbi HA, Villaruz L, Tarhini A, Moschos S, Sulecki M, Viverette F, Shipe-Spotloe J, Radkowski R, Kirkwood JM. Inhibition of DNA repair with MGMT pseudosubstrates: phase I study of lomeguatrib in combination with dacarbazine in patients with advanced melanoma and other solid tumours. Brit J Cancer. 2011 Sep.105(6):773-777. Pubmedid: 21811257. Pmcid: PMC3171007.
  • Tarhini AA, Pahuja S, Kirkwood JM. Neoadjuvant therapy for high-risk bulky regional melanoma. J Surg Oncol. 2011 Sep.104(4):386-390. Pubmedid: 21858833.
  • Tarhini AA, Frankel P, Margolin KA, Christensen S, Ruel C, Shipe-Spotloe J, Gandara DR, Chen A, Kirkwood JM. Aflibercept (VEGF Trap) in inoperable stage III or stage iv melanoma of cutaneous or uveal origin. Clin Cancer Res. 2011 Oct.17(20):6574-6581. Pubmedid: 21880788. Pmcid: PMC3196047.
  • Leong SP, Gershenwald JE, Soong SJ, Schadendorf D, Tarhini AA, Agarwala S, Hauschild A, Soon CW, Daud A, Kashani-Sabet M. Cutaneous melanoma: a model to study cancer metastasis. J Surg Oncol. 2011 May.103(6):538-549. Pubmedid: 21480247.
  • Liew DN, Kano H, Kondziolka D, Mathieu D, Niranjan A, Flickinger JC, Kirkwood JM, Tarhini A, Moschos S, Lunsford LD. Outcome predictors of Gamma Knife surgery for melanoma brain metastases. Clinical article. J Neurosurg. 2011 Mar.114(3):769-779. Pubmedid: 20524829.
  • Tarhini AA, Belani CP, Luketich JD, Argiris A, Ramalingam SS, Gooding W, Pennathur A, Petro D, Kane K, Liggitt D, Championsmith T, Zhang X, Epperly MW, Greenberger JS. A phase I study of concurrent chemotherapy (paclitaxel and carboplatin) and thoracic radiotherapy with swallowed manganese superoxide dismutase plasmid liposome protection in patients with locally advanced stage III non-small-cell lung cancer. Hum Gene Ther. 2011 Mar.22(3):336-342. Pubmedid: 20873987. Pmcid: PMC3057216.
  • Krauze MT, Tarhini A, Gogas H, Kirkwood JM. Prognostic significance of autoimmunity during treatment of melanoma with interferon. Semin Immunopathol. 2011 Jul.33(4):385-391. Pubmedid: 21279809.
  • Tarhini AA, Iqbal F. CTLA-4 blockade: therapeutic potential in cancer treatments. Onco Targets Ther. 2010 Jun.3:15-25. Pubmedid: 20616954. Pmcid: PMC2895779.
  • Tarhini A, Kotsakis A, Gooding W, Shuai Y, Petro D, Friedland D, Belani CP, Dacic S, Argiris A. Phase II study of everolimus (RAD001) in previously treated small cell lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2010 Dec.16(23):5900-5907. Pubmedid: 21045083.
  • Tarhini AA, Kirkwood JM. CTLA-4-blocking immunotherapy with ipilimumab for advanced melanoma. Oncology (Williston Park). 2010 Dec.24(14):1302, 1304. Pubmedid: 21294474.
  • Tarhini A, Lo E, Minor DR. Releasing the brake on the immune system: ipilimumab in melanoma and other tumors. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2010 Dec.25(6):601-613. Pubmedid: 21204754. Pmcid: PMC3011989.
  • Tarhini AA, Kirkwood JM, Krieg AM. Early development of the Toll-like receptor 9 agonist, PF-3512676, for the treatment of patients with advanced cancers. Expert Opin Drug Discov. 2009 May.4(5):587-603. Pubmedid: 23485088.
  • Kirkwood JM, Tarhini AA. Biomarkers of therapeutic response in melanoma and renal cell carcinoma: potential inroads to improved immunotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Jun.27(16):2583-2585. Pubmedid: 19364958.
  • Tarhini AA, Stuckert J, Lee S, Sander C, Kirkwood JM. Prognostic significance of serum S100B protein in high-risk surgically resected melanoma patients participating in Intergroup Trial ECOG 1694. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Jan.27(1):38-44. Pubmedid: 19047287. Pmcid: PMC3426933.
  • Foon KA, Boyiadzis M, Land SR, Marks S, Raptis A, Pietragallo L, Meisner D, Laman A, Sulecki M, Butchko A, Schaefer P, Lenzer D, Tarhini A. Chemoimmunotherapy with low-dose fludarabine and cyclophosphamide and high dose rituximab in previously untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. J Clin Oncol. 2009 Feb.27(4):498-503. Pubmedid: 19075274.
  • Tarhini AA, Millward M, Mainwaring P, Kefford R, Logan T, Pavlick A, Kathman SJ, Laubscher KH, Dar MM, Kirkwood JM. A phase 2, randomized study of SB-485232, rhIL-18, in patients with previously untreated metastatic melanoma. Cancer. 2009 Feb.115(4):859-868. Pubmedid: 19140204.
  • Tarhini AA, Kirkwood JM. Clinical and immunologic basis of interferon therapy in melanoma. Ann Ny Acad Sci. 2009 Dec.1182:47-57. Pubmedid: 20074274. Pmcid: PMC3428067.
  • Tarhini AA, Kirkwood JM, Gooding WE, Moschos S, Agarwala SS. A phase 2 trial of sequential temozolomide chemotherapy followed by high-dose interleukin 2 immunotherapy for metastatic melanoma. Cancer. 2008 Oct.113(7):1632-1640. Pubmedid: 18720480.
  • Tarhini AA, Kirkwood JM. Tremelimumab (CP-675,206): a fully human anticytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 monoclonal antibody for treatment of patients with advanced cancers. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2008 Oct.8(10):1583-1593. Pubmedid: 18774925.
  • Tarhini AA, Kirkwood JM, Tawbi H, Gooding WE, Islam MF, Agarwala SS. Safety and efficacy of arsenic trioxide for patients with advanced metastatic melanoma. Cancer. 2008 Mar.112(5):1131-1138. Pubmedid: 18286511.
  • Hauschild A, Gogas H, Tarhini A, Middleton MR, Testori A, Dréno B, Kirkwood JM. Practical guidelines for the management of interferon-alpha-2b side effects in patients receiving adjuvant treatment for melanoma: expert opinion. Cancer. 2008 Mar.112(5):982-994. Pubmedid: 18236459.
  • Kirkwood JM, Tarhini AA, Panelli MC, Moschos SJ, Zarour HM, Butterfield LH, Gogas HJ. Next generation of immunotherapy for melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Jul.26(20):3445-3455. Pubmedid: 18612161.
  • Kirkwood JM, Tarhini AA, Moschos SJ, Panelli MC. Adjuvant therapy with high-dose interferon alpha 2b in patients with high-risk stage IIB/III melanoma. Nat Clin Pract Oncol. 2008 Jan.5(1):2-3. Pubmedid: 18030300.
  • Tarhini AA, Kirkwood JM, Gooding WE, Cai C, Agarwala SS. Durable complete responses with high-dose bolus interleukin-2 in patients with metastatic melanoma who have experienced progression after biochemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Sep.25(25):3802-3807. Pubmedid: 17761969.
  • Tarhini AA, Kirkwood JM. Tremelimumab, a fully human monoclonal IgG2 antibody against CTLA4 for the potential treatment of cancer. Curr Opin Mol Ther. 2007 Oct.9(5):505-514. Pubmedid: 17932815.
  • Tarhini AA, Kirkwood JM. Oblimersen in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Future Oncol. 2007 Jun.3(3):263-271. Pubmedid: 17547520.
  • Tarhini AA, Agarwala SS. Cutaneous melanoma: available therapy for metastatic disease. Dermatol Ther. 2006 Jan.19(1):19-25. Pubmedid: 16405566.
  • Tarhini AA, Land S, Gupta A, Kirkwood JM. Does childhood vaccination and exposure to infection improve long-term survival in patients with malignant melanoma?. Nat Clin Pract Oncol. 2005 May.2(5):240-241. Pubmedid: 16264957.
  • Tarhini AA, Agarwala SS. Novel agents in development for the treatment of melanoma. Expert Opin Inv Drug. 2005 Jul.14(7):885-892. Pubmedid: 16022577.
  • Tarhini AA, Agarwala SS. Interleukin-2 for the treatment of melanoma. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2005 Dec.6(12):1234-1239. Pubmedid: 16370388.
  • Tarhini AA, Agarwala SS. Management of brain metastases in patients with melanoma. Curr Opin Oncol. 2004 Mar.16(2):161-166. Pubmedid: 15075910.
  • Kirkwood JM, Tarhini AA. Adjuvant high-dose interferon-alpha therapy for high-risk melanoma. Forum (Genova). 2003 Jan.13(2):127-140. Pubmedid: 14732880.
  • Kirkwood JM, Bender C, Agarwala S, Tarhini A, Shipe-Spotloe J, Smelko B, Donnelly S, Stover L. Mechanisms and management of toxicities associated with high-dose interferon alfa-2b therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2002 Sep.20(17):3703-3718. Pubmedid: 12202672.