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Keiran Smalley, PhD

Program: Tumor Biology


The Smalley lab studies the biology and therapeutic management of melanoma, the deadliest of all skin cancers. We use cutting edge techniques such as phospho-proteomics, Single Cell RNA-Seq, ATAC-Seq, Chip-Seq and other omics platforms to understand signaling adaptation, host-tumor crosstalk and epigenetic remodeling. Our focus includes cutaneous melanoma, acral melanoma, pediatric melanoma, melanoma brain metastases and uveal melanoma. The work is highly translational in nature and has led to multiple clinical trials.


    • Cutaneous Oncology
    • Tumor Biology
    • Melanoma Research Center of Excellence
    • Systems Medicine Working Group
    • Molecular Medicine Program
    • Molecular Medicine Program

Education & Training


  • University of Cambridge, PhD


  • UCL Oncology Department, Fellow
  • Chester Beatty Laboratory, Institute of Cancer Research, Fellow
  • Wistar Institute, Research Fellow

The Smalley lab studies the biology and therapeutic management of melanoma, the deadliest of all skin cancers. We use cutting edge techniques such as phospho-proteomics, Single Cell RNA-Seq, ATAC-Seq, Chip-Seq and other omics platforms to understand signaling adaptation, host-tumor crosstalk and epigenetic remodeling. Our focus includes cutaneous melanoma, acral melanoma, pediatric melanoma, melanoma brain metastases and uveal melanoma. The work is highly translational in nature and has led to multiple clinical trials.


  • Phadke MS, Smalley KSM. Targeting NRAS Mutations in Advanced Melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2023 Mar.JCO2300205. Pubmedid: 36947724.
  • Smalley KSM. Too Much Fuel on the Fire? Linking Obesity, Metabolism, and Melanoma Outcomes. Clin Cancer Res. 2023 Jan.29(1):5-7. Pubmedid: 36315002.
  • Velayutham S, Seal T, Danthurthy S, Zaias J, Smalley KSM, Minond D. In Vivo Acute Toxicity Studies of Novel Anti-Melanoma Compounds Downregulators of hnRNPH1/H2. Biomolecules. 2023 Feb.13(2). Pubmedid: 36830718. Pmcid: PMC9953269.
  • Smalley I, Smalley KSM. Space Is the Place: Mapping the Cell-Cell Interactions That Predict Immunotherapy Responses in Melanoma. Cancer Res. 2022 Sep.82(18):3198-3200. Pubmedid: 36111402.
  • Thompson ZJ, Teer JK, Li J, Chen Z, Welsh EA, Zhang Y, Ayoubi N, Eroglu Z, Tan AC, Smalley KSM, Chen YA. Drepmel-A Multi-Omics Melanoma Drug Repurposing Resource for Prioritizing Drug Combinations and Understanding Tumor Microenvironment. Cells. 2022 Sep.11(18). Pubmedid: 36139469. Pmcid: PMC9497118.
  • Law V, Chen Z, Vena F, Smalley I, Macaulay R, Evernden BR, Tran N, Pina Y, Puskas J, Caceres G, Bayle S, Johnson J, Liu JKC, Etame A, Vogelbaum M, Rodriguez P, Duckett D, Czerniecki B, Chen A, Smalley KSM, Forsyth PA. A preclinical model of patient-derived cerebrospinal fluid circulating tumor cells for experimental therapeutics in leptomeningeal disease from melanoma. Neurooncol. 2022 Oct.24(10):1673-1686. Pubmedid: 35213727. Pmcid: PMC9527526.
  • Mandula JK, Chang S, Mohamed E, Jimenez R, Sierra-Mondragon RA, Chang DC, Obermayer AN, Moran-Segura CM, Das S, Vazquez-Martinez JA, Prieto K, Chen A, Smalley KSM, Czerniecki B, Forsyth P, Koya RC, Ruffell B, Cubillos-Ruiz JR, Munn DH, Shaw TI, Conejo-Garcia JR, Rodriguez PC. Ablation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress kinase PERK induces paraptosis and type I interferon to promote anti-tumor T cell responses. Cancer Cell. 2022 Oct.40(10):1145-1160.e9. Pubmedid: 36150390. Pmcid: PMC9561067.
  • Karz A, Dimitrova M, Kleffman K, Alvarez-Breckenridge C, Atkins MB, Boire A, Bosenberg M, Brastianos P, Cahill DP, Chen Q, Ferguson S, Forsyth P, Glitza Oliva IC, Goldberg SB, Holmen SL, Knisely JPS, Merlino G, Nguyen DX, Pacold ME, Perez-Guijarro E, Smalley KSM, Tawbi HA, Wen PY, Davies MA, Kluger HM, Mehnert JM, Hernando E. Melanoma central nervous system metastases: An update to approaches, challenges, and opportunities. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2022 Nov.35(6):554-572. Pubmedid: 35912544.
  • Li J, Smalley I, Chen Z, Wu JY, Phadke MS, Teer JK, Nguyen T, Karreth FA, Koomen JM, Sarnaik AA, Zager JS, Khushalani NI, Tarhini AA, Sondak VK, Rodriguez PC, Messina JL, Chen YA, Smalley KSM. Single-cell Characterization of the Cellular Landscape of Acral Melanoma Identifies Novel Targets for Immunotherapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2022 May.28(10):2131-2146. Pubmedid: 35247927. Pmcid: PMC9106889.
  • Kaler CJ, Dollar JJ, Cruz AM, Kuznetsoff JN, Sanchez MI, Decatur CL, Licht JD, Smalley KSM, Correa ZM, Kurtenbach S, Harbour JW. BAP1 Loss Promotes Suppressive Tumor Immune Microenvironment via Upregulation of PROS1 in Class 2 Uveal Melanomas. Cancers (Basel). 2022 Jul.14(15). Pubmedid: 35954340. Pmcid: PMC9367253.
  • Phadke M, Ozgun A, Eroglu Z, Smalley KSM. Melanoma brain metastases: Biological basis and novel therapeutic strategies. Exp Dermatol. 2022 Jan.31(1):31-42. Pubmedid: 33455008.
  • Emmons MF, Smalley KSM. Ironing-Out the Details: New Strategies for Combining Ferroptosis Inhibitors with Immunotherapy in Melanoma. J Invest Dermatol. 2022 Jan.142(1):18-20. Pubmedid: 34565560.
  • Basu A, Albert GK, Awshah S, Datta J, Kodumudi KN, Gallen C, Beyer A, Smalley KSM, Rodriguez PC, Dukett DR, Forsyth PA, Soyano A, Koski GK, Lima Barros Costa R, Han H, Soliman H, Lee MC, Kalinski P, Czerniecki BJ. Identification of Immunogenic MHC Class II Human HER3 Peptides that Mediate Anti-HER3 CD4+ Th1 Responses and Potential Use as a Cancer Vaccine. Cancer Immunol Res. 2022 Jan.10(1):108-125. Pubmedid: 34785506. Pmcid: PMC9414303.
  • Sriramareddy SN, Faião-Flores F, Emmons MF, Saha B, Chellappan S, Wyatt C, Smalley I, Licht JD, Durante MA, Harbour JW, Smalley KSM. HDAC11 activity contributes to MEK inhibitor escape in uveal melanoma. Cancer Gene Ther. 2022 Dec.29(12):1840-1846. Pubmedid: 35332245. Pmcid: PMC9508287.
  • Phadke MS, Chen Z, Li J, Mohamed E, Davies MA, Smalley I, Duckett D, Palve V, Czerniecki BJ, Forsyth PA, Noyes D, Adeegbe DO, Eroglu Z, Nguyen KT, Tsai KY, Rix U, Burd CE, Chen YA, Rodriguez PC, Smalley KSM. Targeted Therapy Given after Anti-PD-1 Leads to Prolonged Responses in Mouse Melanoma Models through Sustained Antitumor Immunity. Cancer Immunol Res. 2021 May.9(5):554-567. Pubmedid: 33653716. Pmcid: PMC8102376.
  • Neelature Sriramareddy S, Smalley KSM. MEK-ing the Most of It: Strategies to Co-target Gαq and MAPK in Uveal Melanoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2021 Mar.27(5):1217-1219. Pubmedid: 33355300. Pmcid: PMC7925419.
  • Smalley KSM, Teer JK, Chen YA, Wu JY, Yao J, Koomen JM, Chen WS, Rodriguez-Waitkus P, Karreth FA, Messina JL. A Mutational Survey of Acral Nevi. JAMA Dermatol. 2021 Jul.157(7):831-835. Pubmedid: 33978681. Pmcid: PMC8117064.
  • Smalley I, Chen Z, Phadke MS, Li J, Yu X, Wyatt C, Evernden B, Messina JL, Sarnaik A, Sondak VK, Zhang C, Law V, Tran N, Etame A, Macaulay RJB, Eroglu Z, Forsyth PA, Rodriguez PC, Chen YA, Smalley KSM. Single-Cell Characterization of the Immune Microenvironment of Melanoma Brain and Leptomeningeal Metastases. Clin Cancer Res. 2021 Jul.27(14):4109-4125. Pubmedid: 34035069. Pmcid: PMC8282775.
  • Law V, Baldwin M, Ramamoorthi G, Kodumudi K, Tran N, Smalley I, Duckett D, Kalinski P, Czerniecki B, Smalley KSM, Forsyth PA. A Murine Ommaya Xenograft Model to Study Direct-Targeted Therapy of Leptomeningeal Disease. J Vis Exp. 2021 Jan.(167). Pubmedid: 33586709. Pmcid: PMC9014476.
  • Zhang C, Smalley I, Emmons MF, Sharma R, Izumi V, Messina J, Koomen JM, Pasquale EB, Forsyth PA, Smalley KSM. Noncanonical EphA2 Signaling Is a Driver of Tumor-Endothelial Cell Interactions and Metastatic Dissemination in BRAF Inhibitor‒Resistant Melanoma. J Invest Dermatol. 2021 Apr.141(4):840-851.e4. Pubmedid: 32890629. Pmcid: PMC7921215.
  • Wang X, Yu X, Krauthammer M, Hugo W, Duan C, Kanetsky PA, Teer JK, Thompson ZJ, Kalos D, Tsai KY, Smalley KSM, Sondak VK, Chen YA, Conejo-Garcia JR. The Association of MUC16 Mutation with Tumor Mutation Burden and Its Prognostic Implications in Cutaneous Melanoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2020 Sep.29(9):1792-1799. Pubmedid: 32611582. Pmcid: PMC7483810.
  • Taylor NJ, Gaynanova I, Eschrich SA, Welsh EA, Garrett TJ, Beecher C, Sharma R, Koomen JM, Smalley KSM, Messina JL, Kanetsky PA. Metabolomics of primary cutaneous melanoma and matched adjacent extratumoral microenvironment. PLoS One. 2020 Oct.15(10):e0240849. Pubmedid: 33108391. Pmcid: PMC7591037.
  • Gonçalves Avezedo J, Emmons MF, Faião-Flores F, Aplin AE, Harbour JW, Licht JD, Rosângela Wink M, Smalley KSM. Decitabine limits escape from MEK inhibition in uveal melanoma. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2020 May.33(3):507-514. Pubmedid: 31758842. Pmcid: PMC7180095.
  • Smalley I, Law V, Wyatt C, Evernden B, Fang B, Koomen JM, Welsh EA, Macaulay RJB, Forsyth PA, Smalley KSM. Proteomic Analysis of CSF from Patients with Leptomeningeal Melanoma Metastases Identifies Signatures Associated with Disease Progression and Therapeutic Resistance. Clin Cancer Res. 2020 May.26(9):2163-2175. Pubmedid: 31924735. Pmcid: PMC7196498.
  • Piña Y, Fusco MJ, Macaulay RJ, Walko CM, Peguero E, Evernden BR, Smalley KS, Forsyth P. Using personalized medicine in gliomas: a genomic approach to diagnosis and overcoming treatment resistance in a case with pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma. J Neurol. 2020 Mar.267(3):783-790. Pubmedid: 31748891. Pmcid: PMC7035305.
  • Glitza IC, Smalley KSM, Brastianos PK, Davies MA, McCutcheon I, Liu JKC, Ahmed KA, Arrington JA, Evernden BR, Smalley I, Eroglu Z, Khushalani N, Margolin K, Kluger H, Atkins MB, Tawbi H, Boire A, Forsyth P. Leptomeningeal disease in melanoma patients: An update to treatment, challenges, and future directions. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2020 Jul.33(4):527-541. Pubmedid: 31916400.
  • Smalley KSM. Two Worlds Collide: Unraveling the Role of the Immune System in BRAF-MEK Inhibitor Responses. Cancer Discov. 2020 Feb.10(2):176-178. Pubmedid: 32024680.
  • Yin Q, Wyatt CJ, Han T, Smalley KSM, Wan L. ITCH as a potential therapeutic target in human cancers. Semin Cancer Biol. 2020 Dec.67(Pt 2):117-130. Pubmedid: 32165318. Pmcid: PMC7724637.
  • Chen YA, Teer JK, Eroglu Z, Wu JY, Koomen JM, Karreth FA, Messina JL, Smalley KSM. Translational pathology, genomics and the development of systemic therapies for acral melanoma. Semin Cancer Biol. 2020 Apr.61:149-157. Pubmedid: 31689494. Pmcid: PMC7771370.
  • Faião-Flores F, Emmons MF, Durante MA, Kinose F, Saha B, Fang B, Koomen JM, Chellappan SP, Maria-Engler SS, Rix U, Licht JD, Harbour JW, Smalley KSM. HDAC Inhibition Enhances the In Vivo Efficacy of MEK Inhibitor Therapy in Uveal Melanoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2019 Sep.25(18):5686-5701. Pubmedid: 31227503. Pmcid: PMC6744978.
  • Smalley I, Kim E, Li J, Spence P, Wyatt CJ, Eroglu Z, Sondak VK, Messina JL, Babacan NA, Maria-Engler SS, De Armas L, Williams SL, Gatenby RA, Chen YA, Anderson ARA, Smalley KSM. Leveraging transcriptional dynamics to improve BRAF inhibitor responses in melanoma. EBioMedicine. 2019 Oct.48:178-190. Pubmedid: 31594749. Pmcid: PMC6838387.
  • Xie M, Zheng H, Madan-Lala R, Dai W, Gimbrone NT, Chen Z, Kinose F, Blackstone SA, Smalley KSM, Cress WD, Haura EB, Rix U, Beg AA. MEK Inhibition Modulates Cytokine Response to Mediate Therapeutic Efficacy in Lung Cancer. Cancer Res. 2019 Nov.79(22):5812-5825. Pubmedid: 31362929. Pmcid: PMC6881545.
  • Eroglu Z, Holmen SL, Chen Q, Khushalani NI, Amaravadi R, Thomas R, Ahmed KA, Tawbi H, Chandra S, Markowitz J, Smalley I, Liu JKC, Ann Chen Y, Najjar YG, Karreth FA, Abate-Daga D, Glitza IC, Sosman JA, Sondak VK, Bosenberg M, Herlyn M, Atkins MB, Kluger H, Margolin K, Forsyth PA, Davies MA, Smalley KSM. Melanoma central nervous system metastases: An update to approaches, challenges, and opportunities. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2019 May.32(3):458-469. Pubmedid: 30712316. Pmcid: PMC7771318.
  • Alves-Fernandes DK, Oliveira ÉA, Faião-Flores F, Alicea-Rebecca G, Weeraratna AT, Smalley KSM, Barros SBM, Maria-Engler SS. ER stress promotes antitumor effects in BRAFi/MEKi resistant human melanoma induced by natural compound 4-nerolidylcathecol (4-NC). Pharmacol Res. 2019 Mar.141:63-72. Pubmedid: 30550954.
  • Emmons MF, Faião-Flores F, Sharma R, Thapa R, Messina JL, Becker JC, Schadendorf D, Seto E, Sondak VK, Koomen JM, Chen YA, Lau EK, Wan L, Licht JD, Smalley KSM. HDAC8 Regulates a Stress Response Pathway in Melanoma to Mediate Escape from BRAF Inhibitor Therapy. Cancer Res. 2019 Jun.79(11):2947-2961. Pubmedid: 30987999. Pmcid: PMC6548652.
  • Faião-Flores F, Smalley KS. Histone deacetylase inhibitors: a promising partner for MEK inhibitors in uveal melanoma?. Melanoma Manag. 2019 Dec.6(4):MMT29. Pubmedid: 31871618. Pmcid: PMC6920734.
  • Smalley KSM. Pharmacological research and cancer: A call to arms. Pharmacol Res. 2019 Aug.146:104291. Pubmedid: 31158465.
  • Yin Q, Han T, Fang B, Zhang G, Zhang C, Roberts ER, Izumi V, Zheng M, Jiang S, Yin X, Kim M, Cai J, Haura EB, Koomen JM, Smalley KSM, Wan L. K27-linked ubiquitination of BRAF by ITCH engages cytokine response to maintain MEK-ERK signaling. Nat Commun. 2019 Apr.10(1):1870. Pubmedid: 31015455. Pmcid: PMC6478693.
  • Smalley KSM, Forsyth PA. The Blood Brain Barrier and BRAF inhibitors: Implications for patients with melanoma brain metastases. Pharmacol Res. 2018 Sep.135:265-267. Pubmedid: 29146209.
  • Eroglu Z, Chen YA, Gibney GT, Weber JS, Kudchadkar RR, Khushalani NI, Markowitz J, Brohl AS, Tetteh LF, Ramadan H, Arnone G, Li J, Zhao X, Sharma R, Darville LNF, Fang B, Smalley I, Messina JL, Koomen JM, Sondak VK, Smalley KSM. Combined BRAF and HSP90 Inhibition in Patients with Unresectable BRAF V600E-Mutant Melanoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2018 Nov.24(22):5516-5524. Pubmedid: 29674508. Pmcid: PMC6195480.
  • Filipp FV, Birlea S, Bosenberg MW, Brash D, Cassidy PB, Chen S, D'Orazio JA, Fujita M, Goh BK, Herlyn M, Indra AK, Larue L, Leachman SA, Le Poole C, Liu-Smith F, Manga P, Montoliu L, Norris DA, Shellman Y, Smalley KSM, Spritz RA, Sturm RA, Swetter SM, Terzian T, Wakamatsu K, Weber JS, Box NF. Frontiers in pigment cell and melanoma research. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2018 Nov.31(6):728-735. Pubmedid: 30281213. Pmcid: PMC6701837.
  • Sloot S, Chen YA, Zhao X, Weber JL, Benedict JJ, Mulé JJ, Smalley KS, Weber JS, Zager JS, Forsyth PA, Sondak VK, Gibney GT. Reply to Improving the survival of patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer stage III and IV melanoma. Cancer. 2018 May.124(10):2254-2255. Pubmedid: 29543319.
  • Abate-Daga D, Ramello MC, Smalley I, Forsyth PA, Smalley KSM. The biology and therapeutic management of melanoma brain metastases. Biochem Pharmacol. 2018 Jul.153:35-45. Pubmedid: 29278675. Pmcid: PMC5959746.
  • Sloot S, Chen YA, Zhao X, Weber JL, Benedict JJ, Mulé JJ, Smalley KS, Weber JS, Zager JS, Forsyth PA, Sondak VK, Gibney GT. Improved survival of patients with melanoma brain metastases in the era of targeted BRAF and immune checkpoint therapies. Cancer. 2018 Jan.124(2):297-305. Pubmedid: 29023643. Pmcid: PMC7771556.
  • Phadke M, Rix LLR, Smalley I, Bryant AT, Luo Y, Lawrence HR, Schaible BJ, Chen YA, Rix U, Smalley KSM. Dabrafenib inhibits the growth of BRAF-WT cancers through CDK16 and NEK9 inhibition. Mol Oncol. 2018 Jan.12(1):74-88. Pubmedid: 29112787. Pmcid: PMC5748485.
  • Verduzco D, Kuenzi BM, Kinose F, Sondak VK, Eroglu Z, Rix U, Smalley KSM. Ceritinib Enhances the Efficacy of Trametinib in BRAF/NRAS-Wild-Type Melanoma Cell Lines. Mol Cancer Ther. 2018 Jan.17(1):73-83. Pubmedid: 29133622. Pmcid: PMC5752595.
  • Smalley I, Smalley KSM. ERK Inhibition: A New Front in the War against MAPK Pathway-Driven Cancers?. Cancer Discov. 2018 Feb.8(2):140-142. Pubmedid: 29431672.
  • Mancera N, Smalley KSM, Margo CE. Melanoma of the eyelid and periocular skin: Histopathologic classification and molecular pathology. Surv Ophthalmol. 2018 Dec.64(3):272-288. Pubmedid: 30578807.
  • Faião-Flores F, Smalley KSM. Get with the Program! Stemness and Reprogramming in Melanoma Metastasis. J Invest Dermatol. 2018 01.138(1):10-13. Pubmedid: 29273143.
  • Smalley KS. Why do women with melanoma do better than men?. Elife. 2018 01.7. Pubmedid: 29336304. Pmcid: PMC5770156.
  • Li J, Smalley I, Schell MJ, Smalley KSM, Chen YA. SinCHet: a MATLAB toolbox for single cell heterogeneity analysis in cancer. Bioinformatics. 2017 Sep.33(18):2951-2953. Pubmedid: 28472395. Pmcid: PMC5870537.
  • Niessner H, Sinnberg T, Kosnopfel C, Smalley KSM, Beck D, Praetorius C, Mai M, Beissert S, Kulms D, Schaller M, Garbe C, Flaherty KT, Westphal D, Wanke I, Meier F. BRAF Inhibitors Amplify the Proapoptotic Activity of MEK Inhibitors by Inducing ER Stress in NRAS-Mutant Melanoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2017 Oct.23(20):6203-6214. Pubmedid: 28724666. Pmcid: PMC5641247.
  • Massaro RR, Faião-Flores F, Rebecca VW, Sandri S, Alves-Fernandes DK, Pennacchi PC, Smalley KS, Maria-Engler SS. Inhibition of proliferation and invasion in 2D and 3D models by 2-methoxyestradiol in human melanoma cells. Pharmacol Res. 2017 May.119:242-250. Pubmedid: 28212889. Pmcid: PMC5642284.
  • Smalley KS. Making melanoma therapy personal: an interview with Dr Keiran Smalley for Melanoma Management. Melanoma Manag. 2017 May.4(2):95-97. Pubmedid: 30190911. Pmcid: PMC6094628.
  • Faião-Flores F, Alves-Fernandes DK, Pennacchi PC, Sandri S, Vicente AL, Scapulatempo-Neto C, Vazquez VL, Reis RM, Chauhan J, Goding CR, Smalley KS, Maria-Engler SS. Targeting the hedgehog transcription factors GLI1 and GLI2 restores sensitivity to vemurafenib-resistant human melanoma cells. Oncogene. 2017 Mar.36(13):1849-1861. Pubmedid: 27748762. Pmcid: PMC5378933.
  • Sahebjam S, Forsyth PA, Smalley KS, Tran ND. Experimental Treatments for Leptomeningeal Metastases From Solid Malignancies. Cancer Control. 2017 Jan.24(1):42-46. Pubmedid: 28178711.
  • Robinson JP, Rebecca VW, Kircher DA, Silvis MR, Smalley I, Gibney GT, Lastwika KJ, Chen G, Davies MA, Grossman D, Smalley KSM, Holmen SL, VanBrocklin MW. Resistance mechanisms to genetic suppression of mutant NRAS in melanoma. Melanoma Res. 2017 Dec.27(6):545-557. Pubmedid: 29076949. Pmcid: PMC5683096.
  • Forsyth PA, Smalley KSM, Sondak VK. BRAF-MEK inhibition in melanoma brain metastases: a new hope. Lancet Oncol. 2017 07.18(7):836-837. Pubmedid: 28677560.
  • Smalley KS, Fedorenko IV, Kenchappa R, Sahebjam S, Forsyth PA. Managing leptomeningeal melanoma metastases in the era of immune and targeted therapy. Int J Cancer. 2016 Sep.139(6):1195-1201. Pubmedid: 27084046. Pmcid: PMC4939138.
  • Fedorenko IV, Evernden B, Kenchappa RS, Sahebjam S, Ryzhova E, Puskas J, McIntosh L, Caceres G, Magliocco A, Etame A, Harbour JW, Smalley KS, Forsyth PA. A rare case of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in a patient with uveal melanoma: case report and review of literature. Melanoma Res. 2016 Oct.26(5):481-486. Pubmedid: 27285292. Pmcid: PMC5502096.
  • Smalley KS. Increased immunity and BRAF inhibition: Yet another argument for combination therapy?. Pharmacol Res. 2016 Nov.113(Pt A):719-720. Pubmedid: 27392741.
  • Kim E, Rebecca VW, Smalley KS, Anderson AR. Phase i trials in melanoma: A framework to translate preclinical findings to the clinic. Eur J Cancer. 2016 Nov.67:213-222. Pubmedid: 27689717. Pmcid: PMC5658204.
  • Lienlaf M, Perez-Villarroel P, Knox T, Pabon M, Sahakian E, Powers J, Woan KV, Lee C, Cheng F, Deng S, Smalley KS, Montecino M, Kozikowski A, Pinilla-Ibarz J, Sarnaik A, Seto E, Weber J, Sotomayor EM, Villagra A. Essential role of HDAC6 in the regulation of PD-L1 in melanoma. Mol Oncol. 2016 May.10(5):735-750. Pubmedid: 26775640. Pmcid: PMC4870131.
  • Fedorenko IV, Abel EV, Koomen JM, Fang B, Wood ER, Chen YA, Fisher KJ, Iyengar S, Dahlman KB, Wargo JA, Flaherty KT, Sosman JA, Sondak VK, Messina JL, Gibney GT, Smalley KS. Fibronectin induction abrogates the BRAF inhibitor response of BRAF V600E/PTEN-null melanoma cells. Oncogene. 2016 Mar.35(10):1225-1235. Pubmedid: 26073081. Pmcid: PMC4679729.
  • Eroglu Z, Smalley KS, Sondak VK. Improving patient outcomes to targeted therapies in melanoma. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2016 Jun.16(6):633-641. Pubmedid: 27137746.
  • Merlino G, Herlyn M, Fisher DE, Bastian BC, Flaherty KT, Davies MA, Wargo JA, Curiel-Lewandrowski C, Weber MJ, Leachman SA, Soengas MS, McMahon M, Harbour JW, Swetter SM, Aplin AE, Atkins MB, Bosenberg MW, Dummer R, Gershenwald JE, Halpern AC, Herlyn D, Karakousis GC, Kirkwood JM, Krauthammer M, Lo RS, Long GV, McArthur G, Ribas A, Schuchter L, Sosman JA, Smalley KS, Steeg P, Thomas NE, Tsao H, Tueting T, Weeraratna A, Xu G, Lomax R, Martin A, Silverstein S, Turnham T, Ronai ZA. The state of melanoma: challenges and opportunities. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2016 Jul.29(4):404-416. Pubmedid: 27087480. Pmcid: PMC5228487.
  • Sloot S, Zager JS, Kudchadkar RR, Messina JL, Benedict JJ, Gonzalez RJ, DeConti R, Turner LM, McCardle T, Smalley KS, Weber JS, Sondak VK, Gibney GT. BRAF inhibition for advanced locoregional BRAF V600E mutant melanoma: a potential neoadjuvant strategy. Melanoma Res. 2016 Feb.26(1):83-87. Pubmedid: 26731560.
  • Emmons MF, Faião-Flores F, Smalley KS. The role of phenotypic plasticity in the escape of cancer cells from targeted therapy. Biochem Pharmacol. 2016 Dec.122:1-9. Pubmedid: 27349985. Pmcid: PMC5124530.
  • Sharma R, Fedorenko I, Spence PT, Sondak VK, Smalley KS, Koomen JM. Activity-Based Protein Profiling Shows Heterogeneous Signaling Adaptations to BRAF Inhibition. J Proteome Res. 2016 Dec.15(12):4476-4489. Pubmedid: 27934295. Pmcid: PMC5642956.
  • Smalley KS, Eroglu Z, Sondak VK. Combination Therapies for Melanoma: A New Standard of Care?. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2016 Apr.17(2):99-105. Pubmedid: 26860106. Pmcid: PMC4805442.
  • Verduzco D, Flaherty KT, Smalley KS. Feeling energetic? New strategies to prevent metabolic reprogramming in melanoma. Exp Dermatol. 2015 Sep.24(9):657-658. Pubmedid: 26010519. Pmcid: PMC4537671.
  • Fedorenko IV, Smalley KS. The complexity of microenvironment-mediated drug resistance. Genes Cancer. 2015 Sep.6(9-10):367-368. Pubmedid: 26622938. Pmcid: PMC4633163.
  • Phadke M, Gibney GT, Rich CJ, Fedorenko IV, Chen Ann Y, Kudchadkar RR, Sondak VK, Weber J, Messina JL, Smalley KS. XL888 Limits Vemurafenib-Induced Proliferative Skin Events by Suppressing Paradoxical MAPK Activation. J Invest Dermatol. 2015 Oct.135(10):2542-2544. Pubmedid: 26039542. Pmcid: PMC4567904.
  • Paraiso KH, Thakur MD, Fang B, Koomen JM, Fedorenko IV, John JK, Tsao H, Flaherty KT, Sondak VK, Messina JL, Pasquale EB, Villagra A, Rao UN, Kirkwood JM, Meier F, Sloot S, Gibney GT, Stuart D, Tawbi H, Smalley KS. Ligand-independent EPHA2 signaling drives the adoption of a targeted therapy-mediated metastatic melanoma phenotype. Cancer Discov. 2015 Mar.5(3):264-273. Pubmedid: 25542447. Pmcid: PMC4355213.
  • Smalley KS, Fedorenko IV. Inhibition of BRAF and BRAF+MEK drives a metastatic switch in melanoma. Mol Cell Oncol. 2015 Mar.2(4):e1008291. Pubmedid: 27308505. Pmcid: PMC4905349.
  • Fang B, Hoffman MA, Mirza AS, Mishall KM, Li J, Peterman SM, Smalley KS, Shain KH, Weinberger PM, Wu J, Rix U, Haura EB, Koomen JM. Evaluating kinase ATP uptake and tyrosine phosphorylation using multiplexed quantification of chemically labeled and post-translationally modified peptides. Methods. 2015 Jun.81:41-49. Pubmedid: 25782629. Pmcid: PMC4460980.
  • Phadke MS, Sini P, Smalley KS. The Novel ATP-Competitive MEK/Aurora Kinase Inhibitor BI-847325 Overcomes Acquired BRAF Inhibitor Resistance through Suppression of Mcl-1 and MEK Expression. Mol Cancer Ther. 2015 Jun.14(6):1354-1364. Pubmedid: 25873592. Pmcid: PMC4458462.
  • Fedorenko IV, Gibney GT, Sondak VK, Smalley KS. Beyond BRAF: where next for melanoma therapy?. Brit J Cancer. 2015 Jan.112(2):217-226. Pubmedid: 25180764. Pmcid: PMC4453440.
  • Fedorenko IV, Fang B, Munko AC, Gibney GT, Koomen JM, Smalley KS. Phosphoproteomic analysis of basal and therapy-induced adaptive signaling networks in BRAF and NRAS mutant melanoma. Proteomics. 2015 Jan.15(2-3):327-339. Pubmedid: 25339196. Pmcid: PMC4389901.
  • Fedorenko IV, Wargo JA, Flaherty KT, Messina JL, Smalley KS. BRAF Inhibition Generates a Host-Tumor Niche that Mediates Therapeutic Escape. J Invest Dermatol. 2015 Dec.135(12):3115-3124. Pubmedid: 26302068. Pmcid: PMC4648653.
  • Cho K, Clementi E, Levi-Schaffer F, Smalley KS, Radice S, Watts S. Introducing a checklist for manuscript submission to Pharmacological Research. Pharmacol Res. 2015 Dec.102:319-321. Pubmedid: 26523875.
  • Cho K, Clementi E, Levi-Schaffer F, Smalley KS, Radice S, Watts SW. Pharmacological research and precision cancer medicine: A call for manuscripts. Pharmacol Res. 2015 Dec.102:308-309. Pubmedid: 26542638.
  • Woan KV, Lienlaf M, Perez-Villaroel P, Lee C, Cheng F, Knox T, Woods DM, Barrios K, Powers J, Sahakian E, Wang HW, Canales J, Marante D, Smalley KS, Bergman J, Seto E, Kozikowski A, Pinilla-Ibarz J, Sarnaik A, Celis E, Weber J, Sotomayor EM, Villagra A. Targeting histone deacetylase 6 mediates a dual anti-melanoma effect: Enhanced antitumor immunity and impaired cell proliferation. Mol Oncol. 2015 Aug.9(7):1447-1457. Pubmedid: 25957812. Pmcid: PMC4523430.
  • Smalley KS, Sondak VK. Inhibition of BRAF and MEK in BRAF-mutant melanoma. Lancet. 2015 Aug.386(9992):410-412. Pubmedid: 26037942.
  • Tiago M, Oliveira EM, Brohem CA, Pennacchi PC, Paes RD, Haga RB, Campa A, Barros SB, Smalley KS, Silvya ME. Fibroblasts protect melanoma cells from the cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin. Tissue Eng Part A. 2014 Sep.20(17-18):2412-2421. Pubmedid: 24548268. Pmcid: PMC4161062.
  • Fedorenko IV, Fang B, Koomen JM, Gibney GT, Smalley KS. Amuvatinib has cytotoxic effects against NRAS-mutant melanoma but not BRAF-mutant melanoma. Melanoma Res. 2014 Oct.24(5):448-453. Pubmedid: 24950457. Pmcid: PMC4384823.
  • Rebecca VW, Smalley KS. Change or die: targeting adaptive signaling to kinase inhibition in cancer cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2014 Oct.91(4):417-425. Pubmedid: 25107706. Pmcid: PMC4171341.
  • Rebecca VW, Alicea GM, Paraiso KH, Lawrence H, Gibney GT, Smalley KS. Vertical inhibition of the MAPK pathway enhances therapeutic responses in NRAS-mutant melanoma. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2014 Nov.27(6):1154-1158. Pubmedid: 25130256. Pmcid: PMC4211982.
  • Rebecca VW, Massaro RR, Fedorenko IV, Sondak VK, Anderson AR, Kim E, Amavaradi RK, Maria-Engler SS, Messina JL, Gibney GT, Kudchadkar RR, Smalley KS. Inhibition of autophagy enhances the effects of the AKT inhibitor MK-2206 when combined with paclitaxel and carboplatin in BRAF wild-type melanoma. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2014 May.27(3):465-478. Pubmedid: 24490764. Pmcid: PMC3988257.
  • Haarberg HE, Smalley KS. Resistance to Raf inhibition in cancer. Drug Discov Today Technol. 2014 Mar.11:27-32. Pubmedid: 24847650. Pmcid: PMC4031441.
  • Rebecca VW, Wood ER, Fedorenko IV, Paraiso KH, Haarberg HE, Chen Y, Xiang Y, Sarnaik A, Gibney GT, Sondak VK, Koomen JM, Smalley KS. Evaluating melanoma drug response and therapeutic escape with quantitative proteomics. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2014 Jul.13(7):1844-1854. Pubmedid: 24760959. Pmcid: PMC4083119.
  • Smalley KS, Weber JS. Up close and personal: the challenges of precision medicine in melanoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014 Feb.106(2):djt443. Pubmedid: 24511111.
  • Smyth T, Paraiso KH, Hearn K, Rodriguez-Lopez AM, Munck JM, Haarberg HE, Sondak VK, Thompson NT, Azab M, Lyons JF, Smalley KS, Wallis NG. Inhibition of HSP90 by AT13387 delays the emergence of resistance to BRAF inhibitors and overcomes resistance to dual BRAF and MEK inhibition in melanoma models. Mol Cancer Ther. 2014 Dec.13(12):2793-2804. Pubmedid: 25349308. Pmcid: PMC4263034.
  • Johnson DB, Smalley KS, Sosman JA. Molecular pathways: targeting NRAS in melanoma and acute myelogenous leukemia. Clin Cancer Res. 2014 Aug.20(16):4186-4192. Pubmedid: 24895460. Pmcid: PMC4134689.
  • Gibney GT, Sondak VK, Smalley KS. Where to start with systemic melanoma therapy?. Melanoma Manag. 2014 Aug.1(1):15-18. Pubmedid: 30190805. Pmcid: PMC6094590.
  • Sloot S, Fedorenko IV, Smalley KS, Gibney GT. Long-term effects of BRAF inhibitors in melanoma treatment: friend or foe?. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2014 Apr.15(5):589-592. Pubmedid: 24456413.
  • Desai BM, Villanueva J, Nguyen TT, Lioni M, Xiao M, Kong J, Krepler C, Vultur A, Flaherty KT, Nathanson KL, Smalley KS, Herlyn M. The anti-melanoma activity of dinaciclib, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, is dependent on p53 signaling. PLoS One. 2013 Sep.8(3):e59588. Pubmedid: 23527225. Pmcid: PMC3601112.
  • Kenchappa RS, Tran N, Rao NG, Smalley KS, Gibney GT, Sondak VK, Forsyth PA. Novel treatments for melanoma brain metastases. Cancer Control. 2013 Oct.20(4):298-306. Pubmedid: 24077406.
  • Smalley KS. Overcoming melanoma drug resistance through metabolic targeting?. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2013 Nov.26(6):793-795. Pubmedid: 24152044.
  • Weber JL, Smalley KS, Sondak VK, Gibney GT. Conjunctival melanomas harbor BRAF and NRAS mutations--Letter. Clin Cancer Res. 2013 Nov.19(22):6329-6330. Pubmedid: 24166902. Pmcid: PMC4666498.
  • Smalley KS, Weber JS. Taming the wild-types: targeting PAK1 in melanomas that lack BRAF mutations. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013 May.105(9):591-592. Pubmedid: 23535072.
  • Smalley KS. Mutant BRAF: a novel mediator of microenvironmental escape in melanoma?. J Invest Dermatol. 2013 May.133(5):1135-1137. Pubmedid: 23594535.
  • Gibney GT, Smalley KS. An unholy alliance: cooperation between BRAF and NF1 in melanoma development and BRAF inhibitor resistance. Cancer Discov. 2013 Mar.3(3):260-263. Pubmedid: 23475878. Pmcid: PMC3595124.
  • Fedorenko IV, Gibney GT, Smalley KS. NRAS mutant melanoma: biological behavior and future strategies for therapeutic management. Oncogene. 2013 Jun.32(25):3009-3018. Pubmedid: 23069660. Pmcid: PMC3978385.
  • Haarberg HE, Paraiso KH, Wood E, Rebecca VW, Sondak VK, Koomen JM, Smalley KS. Inhibition of Wee1, AKT, and CDK4 underlies the efficacy of the HSP90 inhibitor XL888 in an in vivo model of NRAS-mutant melanoma. Mol Cancer Ther. 2013 Jun.12(6):901-912. Pubmedid: 23538902. Pmcid: PMC3683468.
  • Lo RS, Ribas A, Long GV, Ballotti R, Berger M, Willy H, Gibney GT, Bosenberg M, Bernstein E, Villanueva J, Smalley KS. Meeting report from the Society for Melanoma Research 2012 Congress, Hollywood, California. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2013 Jul.26(4):E1-E7. Pubmedid: 23551976.
  • Gibney GT, Messina JL, Fedorenko IV, Sondak VK, Smalley KS. Paradoxical oncogenesis--the long-term effects of BRAF inhibition in melanoma. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2013 Jul.10(7):390-399. Pubmedid: 23712190. Pmcid: PMC3983565.
  • Smalley KS, Sondak VK. Targeted therapy for melanoma: is double hitting a home run?. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2013 Jan.10(1):5-6. Pubmedid: 23207793.
  • Beck D, Niessner H, Smalley KS, Flaherty K, Paraiso KH, Busch C, Sinnberg T, Vasseur S, Iovanna JL, Drießen S, Stork B, Wesselborg S, Schaller M, Biedermann T, Bauer J, Lasithiotakis K, Weide B, Eberle J, Schittek B, Schadendorf D, Garbe C, Kulms D, Meier F. Vemurafenib potently induces endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in BRAFV600E melanoma cells. Sci Signal. 2013 Jan.6(260):ra7. Pubmedid: 23362240. Pmcid: PMC3698985.
  • Kim E, Rebecca VW, Fedorenko IV, Messina JL, Mathew R, Maria-Engler SS, Basanta D, Smalley KS, Anderson AR. Senescent fibroblasts in melanoma initiation and progression: an integrated theoretical, experimental, and clinical approach. Cancer Res. 2013 Dec.73(23):6874-6885. Pubmedid: 24080279. Pmcid: PMC3926439.
  • Tafreshi NK, Silva A, Estrella VC, McCardle TW, Chen T, Jeune-Smith Y, Lloyd MC, Enkemann SA, Smalley KS, Sondak VK, Vagner J, Morse DL. In vivo and in silico pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of a melanocortin receptor 1 targeted agent in preclinical models of melanoma. Mol Pharm. 2013 Aug.10(8):3175-3185. Pubmedid: 23763620. Pmcid: PMC3785103.
  • Pimiento JM, Larkin EM, Smalley KS, Wiersma GL, Monks NR, Fedorenko IV, Peterson CA, Nickoloff BJ. Melanoma genotypes and phenotypes get personal. Lab Invest. 2013 Aug.93(8):858-867. Pubmedid: 23817084.
  • Paraiso KH, Smalley KS. Fibroblast-mediated drug resistance in cancer. Biochem Pharmacol. 2013 Apr.85(8):1033-1041. Pubmedid: 23376122.
  • Smalley KS. Preface: National Cancer Act. Adv Pharmacol. 2012 Sep.65:xi-xiii. Pubmedid: 22959037.
  • Paraiso KH, Haarberg HE, Wood E, Rebecca VW, Chen YA, Xiang Y, Ribas A, Lo RS, Weber JS, Sondak VK, John JK, Sarnaik AA, Koomen JM, Smalley KS. The HSP90 inhibitor XL888 overcomes BRAF inhibitor resistance mediated through diverse mechanisms. Clin Cancer Res. 2012 May.18(9):2502-2514. Pubmedid: 22351686. Pmcid: PMC3398738.
  • Paraiso KH, Smalley KS. Making sense of MEK1 mutations in intrinsic and acquired BRAF inhibitor resistance. Cancer Discov. 2012 May.2(5):390-392. Pubmedid: 22588873. Pmcid: PMC5764102.
  • Smalley KS, Aplin AE, Flaherty KT, Hoeller C, Bosserhoff AK, Haass NK, Bosenberg M, Ribas A, Barnhill R, Kudchadkar R, Messina JL. Meeting report from the 2011 International Melanoma Congress, Tampa, Florida. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2012 Jan.25(1):E1-11. Pubmedid: 22117673.
  • John JK, Paraiso KH, Rebecca VW, Cantini LP, Abel EV, Pagano N, Meggers E, Mathew R, Krepler C, Izumi V, Fang B, Koomen JM, Messina JL, Herlyn M, Smalley KS. GSK3β inhibition blocks melanoma cell/host interactions by downregulating N-cadherin expression and decreasing FAK phosphorylation. J Invest Dermatol. 2012 Dec.132(12):2818-2827. Pubmedid: 22810307. Pmcid: PMC3479306.
  • Rebecca VW, Sondak VK, Smalley KS. A brief history of melanoma: from mummies to mutations. Melanoma Res. 2012 Apr.22(2):114-122. Pubmedid: 22395415. Pmcid: PMC3303163.
  • Smalley KS, McArthur GA. The current state of targeted therapy in melanoma: this time it's personal. Semin Oncol. 2012 Apr.39(2):204-214. Pubmedid: 22484192. Pmcid: PMC3322364.
  • John JK, Smalley KS. Identification of BRAF mutations in eruptive melanocytic nevi: new insights into melanomagenesis?. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2011 May.11(5):711-714. Pubmedid: 21554046. Pmcid: PMC3119904.
  • Sondak VK, Smalley KS, Kudchadkar R, Grippon S, Kirkpatrick P. Ipilimumab. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2011 Jun.10(6):411-412. Pubmedid: 21629286.
  • Hersey P, Smalley KS, Weeraratna A, Bosenberg M, Zhang XD, Haass NK, Paton E, Mann G, Scolyer RA, Tüting T. Meeting report from the 7th International Melanoma Congress, Sydney, November, 2010. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2011 Feb.24(1):e1-15. Pubmedid: 21232023.
  • Rebecca VW, Smalley KS. Tumor heterogeneity and strategies to overcome kinase inhibitor resistance in cancer: lessons from melanoma. Expert Opin Inv Drug. 2011 Feb.20(2):137-140. Pubmedid: 21235427. Pmcid: PMC3078022.
  • Flach EH, Rebecca VW, Herlyn M, Smalley KS, Anderson AR. Fibroblasts contribute to melanoma tumor growth and drug resistance. Mol Pharm. 2011 Dec.8(6):2039-2049. Pubmedid: 22067046. Pmcid: PMC3235959.
  • Fedorenko IV, Paraiso KH, Smalley KS. Acquired and intrinsic BRAF inhibitor resistance in BRAF V600E mutant melanoma. Biochem Pharmacol. 2011 Aug.82(3):201-209. Pubmedid: 21635872. Pmcid: PMC4001781.
  • Remily-Wood ER, Liu RZ, Xiang Y, Chen Y, Thomas CE, Rajyaguru N, Kaufman LM, Ochoa JE, Hazlehurst L, Pinilla-Ibarz J, Lancet J, Zhang G, Haura E, Shibata D, Yeatman T, Smalley KS, Dalton WS, Huang E, Scott E, Bloom GC, Eschrich SA, Koomen JM. A database of reaction monitoring mass spectrometry assays for elucidating therapeutic response in cancer. Proteom Clin Appl. 2011 Aug.5(7-8):383-396. Pubmedid: 21656910. Pmcid: PMC3530891.
  • Paraiso KH, Xiang Y, Rebecca VW, Abel EV, Chen YA, Munko AC, Wood E, Fedorenko IV, Sondak VK, Anderson AR, Ribas A, Palma MD, Nathanson KL, Koomen JM, Messina JL, Smalley KS. PTEN loss confers BRAF inhibitor resistance to melanoma cells through the suppression of BIM expression. Cancer Res. 2011 Apr.71(7):2750-2760. Pubmedid: 21317224. Pmcid: PMC3070772.
  • Koomen JM, Smalley KS. Using quantitative proteomic analysis to understand genotype specific intrinsic drug resistance in melanoma. Oncotarget. 2011 Apr.2(4):329-335. Pubmedid: 21505227. Pmcid: PMC3248164.
  • Smalley KS. Introduction to the Biochemical Pharmacology special issue on targeted cancer therapy. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010 Sep.80(5):549. Pubmedid: 20211148. Pmcid: PMC4001788.
  • Fang B, Haura EB, Smalley KS, Eschrich SA, Koomen JM. Methods for investigation of targeted kinase inhibitor therapy using chemical proteomics and phosphorylation profiling. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010 Sep.80(5):739-747. Pubmedid: 20361944. Pmcid: PMC2995952.
  • Smalley KS. PLX-4032, a small-molecule B-Raf inhibitor for the potential treatment of malignant melanoma. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2010 Jun.11(6):699-706. Pubmedid: 20496265.
  • Paraiso KH, Fedorenko IV, Cantini LP, Munko AC, Hall M, Sondak VK, Messina JL, Flaherty KT, Smalley KS. Recovery of phospho-ERK activity allows melanoma cells to escape from BRAF inhibitor therapy. Brit J Cancer. 2010 Jun.102(12):1724-1730. Pubmedid: 20531415. Pmcid: PMC2883709.
  • Smalley KS. Understanding melanoma signaling networks as the basis for molecular targeted therapy. J Invest Dermatol. 2010 Jan.130(1):28-37. Pubmedid: 19571822.
  • Lee JT, Li L, Brafford PA, van den Eijnden M, Halloran MB, Sproesser K, Haass NK, Smalley KS, Tsai J, Bollag G, Herlyn M. PLX4032, a potent inhibitor of the B-Raf V600E oncogene, selectively inhibits V600E-positive melanomas. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2010 Dec.23(6):820-827. Pubmedid: 20973932. Pmcid: PMC3623294.
  • Smalley KS, Sondak VK. Melanoma--an unlikely poster child for personalized cancer therapy. N Engl J Med. 2010 Aug.363(9):876-878. Pubmedid: 20818849.
  • Paraiso KH, Der Kooi KV, Messina JL, Smalley KS. Measurement of constitutive MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling activity in human cancer cell lines. Methods Enzymol. 2010.484:549-567. Pubmedid: 21036250. Pmcid: PMC4001792.
  • Flaherty KT, Smalley KS. Preclinical and clinical development of targeted therapy in melanoma: attention to schedule. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2009 Oct.22(5):529-531. Pubmedid: 19619259.
  • Smalley KS, Herlyn M. Integrating tumor-initiating cells into the paradigm for melanoma targeted therapy. Int J Cancer. 2009 Mar.124(6):1245-1250. Pubmedid: 19089923.
  • Smalley KS, Xiao M, Villanueva J, Nguyen TK, Flaherty KT, Letrero R, Van Belle P, Elder DE, Wang Y, Nathanson KL, Herlyn M. CRAF inhibition induces apoptosis in melanoma cells with non-V600E BRAF mutations. Oncogene. 2009 Jan.28(1):85-94. Pubmedid: 18794803. Pmcid: PMC2898184.
  • Smalley KS, Flaherty KT. Integrating BRAF/MEK inhibitors into combination therapy for melanoma. Brit J Cancer. 2009 Feb.100(3):431-435. Pubmedid: 19156138. Pmcid: PMC2658537.
  • Sondak VK, Smalley K. Targeting mutant BRAF and KIT in metastatic melanoma: ASCO 2009 meeting report. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2009 Aug.22(4):386-387. Pubmedid: 19624312.
  • Smalley KS, Flaherty KT. Development of a novel chemical class of BRAF inhibitors offers new hope for melanoma treatment. Future Oncol. 2009 Aug.5(6):775-778. Pubmedid: 19663727.
  • Smalley KS, Nathanson KL, Flaherty KT. Genetic subgrouping of melanoma reveals new opportunities for targeted therapy. Cancer Res. 2009 Apr.69(8):3241-3244. Pubmedid: 19351826.
  • Cantini LP, Meier F, Sondak VK, Smalley KS. The future of targeted therapy approaches in melanoma. Expert Opin Drug Discov. 2009 Apr.4(4):445-456. Pubmedid: 23485043.
  • Smalley KS, Sondak VK, Weber JS. c-KIT signaling as the driving oncogenic event in sub-groups of melanomas. Histol Histopathol. 2009 05.24(5):643-650. Pubmedid: 19283671.
  • Haass NK, Smalley KS. Melanoma biomarkers: current status and utility in diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy. Mol Diagn Ther. 2009.13(5):283-296. Pubmedid: 19791833.
  • Lioni M, Noma K, Snyder A, Klein-Szanto A, Diehl JA, Rustgi AK, Herlyn M, Smalley KS. Bortezomib induces apoptosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells through activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Mol Cancer Ther. 2008 Sep.7(9):2866-2875. Pubmedid: 18790767. Pmcid: PMC2903039.
  • Smalley KS, Lioni M, Dalla Palma M, Xiao M, Desai B, Egyhazi S, Hansson J, Wu H, King AJ, Van Belle P, Elder DE, Flaherty KT, Herlyn M, Nathanson KL. Increased cyclin D1 expression can mediate BRAF inhibitor resistance in BRAF V600E-mutated melanomas. Mol Cancer Ther. 2008 Sep.7(9):2876-2883. Pubmedid: 18790768. Pmcid: PMC2651569.
  • Alfano RW, Leppla SH, Liu S, Bugge TH, Herlyn M, Smalley KS, Bromberg-White JL, Duesbery NS, Frankel AE. Cytotoxicity of the matrix metalloproteinase-activated anthrax lethal toxin is dependent on gelatinase expression and B-RAF status in human melanoma cells. Mol Cancer Ther. 2008 May.7(5):1218-1226. Pubmedid: 18483309. Pmcid: PMC2757055.
  • Xie P, Williams DS, Atilla-Gokcumen GE, Milk L, Xiao M, Smalley KS, Herlyn M, Meggers E, Marmorstein R. Structure-based design of an organoruthenium phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase inhibitor reveals a switch governing lipid kinase potency and selectivity. Acs Chem Biol. 2008 May.3(5):305-316. Pubmedid: 18484710. Pmcid: PMC3618672.
  • Fong L, Jiang Y, Riley M, Liu X, Smalley K, Guttridge D, Farber J. Prevention of upper aerodigestive tract cancer in zinc-deficient rodents: inefficacy of genetic or pharmacological disruption of COX-2. Int J Cancer. 2008 Mar.122(5):978-989. Pubmedid: 17985342.
  • Noma K, Smalley KS, Lioni M, Naomoto Y, Tanaka N, El-Deiry W, King AJ, Nakagawa H, Herlyn M. The essential role of fibroblasts in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-induced angiogenesis. Gastroenterology. 2008 Jun.134(7):1981-1993. Pubmedid: 18439605. Pmcid: PMC2562524.
  • Smalley KS, Contractor R, Nguyen TK, Xiao M, Edwards R, Muthusamy V, King AJ, Flaherty KT, Bosenberg M, Herlyn M, Nathanson KL. Identification of a novel subgroup of melanomas with KIT/cyclin-dependent kinase-4 overexpression. Cancer Res. 2008 Jul.68(14):5743-5752. Pubmedid: 18632627. Pmcid: PMC2615688.
  • Haass NK, Sproesser K, Nguyen TK, Contractor R, Medina CA, Nathanson KL, Herlyn M, Smalley KS. The mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase inhibitor AZD6244 (ARRY-142886) induces growth arrest in melanoma cells and tumor regression when combined with docetaxel. Clin Cancer Res. 2008 Jan.14(1):230-239. Pubmedid: 18172275.
  • Smalley KS, Lioni M, Noma K, Haass NK, Herlyn M. In vitro three-dimensional tumor microenvironment models for anticancer drug discovery. Expert Opin Drug Discov. 2008 Jan.3(1):1-10. Pubmedid: 23480136.
  • Tsai J, Lee JT, Wang W, Zhang J, Cho H, Mamo S, Bremer R, Gillette S, Kong J, Haass NK, Sproesser K, Li L, Smalley KS, Fong D, Zhu YL, Marimuthu A, Nguyen H, Lam B, Liu J, Cheung I, Rice J, Suzuki Y, Luu C, Settachatgul C, Shellooe R, Cantwell J, Kim SH, Schlessinger J, Zhang KY, West BL, Powell B, Habets G, Zhang C, Ibrahim PN, Hirth P, Artis DR, Herlyn M, Bollag G. Discovery of a selective inhibitor of oncogenic B-Raf kinase with potent antimelanoma activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Feb.105(8):3041-3046. Pubmedid: 18287029. Pmcid: PMC2268581.
  • Maksimoska J, Williams DS, Atilla-Gokcumen GE, Smalley KS, Carroll PJ, Webster RD, Filippakopoulos P, Knapp S, Herlyn M, Meggers E. Similar biological activities of two isostructural ruthenium and osmium complexes. Chemistry. 2008.14(16):4816-4822. Pubmedid: 18425743. Pmcid: PMC2753370.
  • Lopez-Bergami P, Huang C, Goydos JS, Yip D, Bar-Eli M, Herlyn M, Smalley KS, Mahale A, Eroshkin A, Aaronson S, Ronai Z. Rewired ERK-JNK signaling pathways in melanoma. Cancer Cell. 2007 May.11(5):447-460. Pubmedid: 17482134. Pmcid: PMC1978100.
  • Smalley KS, Contractor R, Haass NK, Kulp AN, Atilla-Gokcumen GE, Williams DS, Bregman H, Flaherty KT, Soengas MS, Meggers E, Herlyn M. An organometallic protein kinase inhibitor pharmacologically activates p53 and induces apoptosis in human melanoma cells. Cancer Res. 2007 Jan.67(1):209-217. Pubmedid: 17210701.
  • Smalley KS, Flaherty KT. Is ERK activation a good biomarker for estradiol and tamoxifen effects?. Cancer Biol Ther. 2007 Jan.6(1):119-120. Pubmedid: 17264668.
  • Smalley KS, Contractor R, Haass NK, Lee JT, Nathanson KL, Medina CA, Flaherty KT, Herlyn M. Ki67 expression levels are a better marker of reduced melanoma growth following MEK inhibitor treatment than phospho-ERK levels. Brit J Cancer. 2007 Feb.96(3):445-449. Pubmedid: 17245336. Pmcid: PMC2360037.
  • Lioni M, Brafford P, Andl C, Rustgi A, El-Deiry W, Herlyn M, Smalley KS. Dysregulation of claudin-7 leads to loss of E-cadherin expression and the increased invasion of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells. Am J Pathol. 2007 Feb.170(2):709-721. Pubmedid: 17255337. Pmcid: PMC1851859.
  • Smalley KS, Haass NK, Brafford PA, Lioni M, Flaherty KT, Herlyn M. Multiple signaling pathways must be targeted to overcome drug resistance in cell lines derived from melanoma metastases. Mol Cancer Ther. 2006 May.5(5):1136-1144. Pubmedid: 16731745.
  • Fang D, Leishear K, Nguyen T, Finko R, Cai K, Fukunaga M, Li L, Brafford P, Kulp A, Xu X, Smalley K, Herlyn M. Defining the conditions for the generation of melanocytes from human embryonic stem cells. Stem Cells. 2006 Jul.24(7):1668-1677. Pubmedid: 16574754.
  • King AJ, Patrick DR, Batorsky RS, Ho ML, Do HT, Zhang SY, Kumar R, Rusnak DW, Takle AK, Wilson DM, Hugger E, Wang L, Karreth F, Lougheed JC, Lee J, Chau D, Stout TJ, May EW, Rominger CM, Schaber MD, Luo L, Lakdawala AS, Adams JL, Contractor RG, Smalley KS, Herlyn M, Morrissey MM, Tuveson DA, Huang PS. Demonstration of a genetic therapeutic index for tumors expressing oncogenic BRAF by the kinase inhibitor SB-590885. Cancer Res. 2006 Dec.66(23):11100-11105. Pubmedid: 17145850.
  • Smalley KS, Herlyn M. Towards the targeted therapy of melanoma. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2006 Apr.6(4):387-393. Pubmedid: 16613575.
  • Liu ZJ, Xiao M, Balint K, Smalley KS, Brafford P, Qiu R, Pinnix CC, Li X, Herlyn M. Notch1 signaling promotes primary melanoma progression by activating mitogen-activated protein kinase/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathways and up-regulating N-cadherin expression. Cancer Res. 2006 Apr.66(8):4182-4190. Pubmedid: 16618740.
  • Meier F, Schittek B, Busch S, Garbe C, Smalley K, Satyamoorthy K, Li G, Herlyn M. The RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways present molecular targets for the effective treatment of advanced melanoma. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2005 Sep.10:2986-3001. Pubmedid: 15970553.
  • Smalley KS, Herlyn M. Targeting intracellular signaling pathways as a novel strategy in melanoma therapeutics. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Nov.1059:16-25. Pubmedid: 16382039.
  • Smalley KS, Brafford P, Haass NK, Brandner JM, Brown E, Herlyn M. Up-regulated expression of zonula occludens protein-1 in human melanoma associates with N-cadherin and contributes to invasion and adhesion. Am J Pathol. 2005 May.166(5):1541-1554. Pubmedid: 15855653. Pmcid: PMC1606406.
  • Haass N, Smalley K, Li L, Herlyn M. Adhesion, migration and communication in melanocytes and melanoma. Pigment Cell Res. 2005 Jun.18(3):150-159. Pubmedid: 15892711.
  • Smalley K, Brafford P, Herlyn M. Selective evolutionary pressure from the tissue microenvironment drives tumor progression. Semin Cancer Biol. 2005 Dec.15(6):451-459. Pubmedid: 16043361.
  • Smalley K, Lioni M, Herlyn M. Targeting the stromal fibroblasts: a novel approach to melanoma therapy. Expert Rev Anticanc. 2005 Dec.5(6):1069-1078. Pubmedid: 16336098.
  • Smalley KS, Herlyn M. Loitering with intent: new evidence for the role of BRAF mutations in the proliferation of melanocytic lesions. J Invest Dermatol. 2004 Oct.123(4):xvi-xvii. Pubmedid: 15373800.
  • Haass N, Smalley K, Herlyn M. The role of altered cell-cell communication in melanoma progression. J Mol Histol. 2004 Mar.35(3):309-318. Pubmedid: 15339050.
  • Smalley K, Herlyn M. The great escape: another way for melanoma to leave physiological control. J Invest Dermatol. 2003 Oct.121(4):xi-xii. Pubmedid: 14632176.
  • Smalley KS. A pivotal role for ERK in the oncogenic behaviour of malignant melanoma?. Int J Cancer. 2003 May.104(5):527-532. Pubmedid: 12594806.
  • Smalley KS, Eisen TG. Farnesyl transferase inhibitor SCH66336 is cytostatic, pro-apoptotic and enhances chemosensitivity to cisplatin in melanoma cells. Int J Cancer. 2003 Jun.105(2):165-175. Pubmedid: 12673674.
  • Smalley K, Eisen T. Differentiation of human melanoma cells through p38 MAP kinase is associated with decreased retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation and cell cycle arrest. Melanoma Res. 2002 Jun.12(3):187-192. Pubmedid: 12140374.
  • Smalley KS, Eisen TG. Farnesyl thiosalicylic acid inhibits the growth of melanoma cells through a combination of cytostatic and pro-apoptotic effects. Int J Cancer. 2002 Apr.98(4):514-522. Pubmedid: 11920610.
  • Stebbing J, Benson C, Eisen T, Pyle L, Smalley K, Bridle H, Mak I, Sapunar F, Ahern R, Gore M. The treatment of advanced renal cell cancer with high-dose oral thalidomide. Br J Cancer. 2001 Sep.85(7):953-958. Pubmedid: 11592764.
  • Smalley K, Koenig J, Feniuk W, Humphrey P. Ligand internalization and recycling by human recombinant somatostatin type 4 (h sst(4)) receptors expressed in CHO-K1 cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2001 Mar.132(5):1102-1110. Pubmedid: 11226141. Pmcid: PMC1572639.
  • Smalley K, Eisen T. The involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in the alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH)-induced melanogenic and anti-proliferative effects in B16 murine melanoma cells. FEBS Lett. 2000 Jul.476(3):198-202. Pubmedid: 10913613.
  • Smalley KS, Feniuk W, Sellers LA, Humphrey PP. The pivotal role of phosphoinositide-3 kinase in the human somatostatin sst(4) receptor-mediated stimulation of p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular acidification. Biochem Bioph Res Co. 1999 Sep.263(1):239-243. Pubmedid: 10486283.
  • Smalley K, Feniuk W, Humphrey P. Differential agonist activity of somatostatin and L-362855 at human recombinant sst4 receptors. Br J Pharmacol. 1998 Oct.125(4):833-841. Pubmedid: 9831922 .
  • Smalley K, Lioni M, Herlyn M. Life isn't flat: taking cancer biology to the next dimension. In Vitro Cell Dev-An. 42(8-9):242-247. Pubmedid: 17163781.
  • Kudchadkar R, Paraiso KH, Smalley KS. Targeting mutant BRAF in melanoma: current status and future development of combination therapy strategies. Cancer J. 18(2):124-131. Pubmedid: 22453012. Pmcid: PMC3314865.
  • Kudchadkar RR, Smalley KS, Glass LF, Trimble JS, Sondak VK. Targeted therapy in melanoma. Clin Dermatol. 31(2):200-208. Pubmedid: 23438383.


  • Title: Single cell analysis of melanoma brain metastases following neoadjuvant immunotherapy treatment.
    Sponsor: Moffitt Cancer Center
    PI: Smalley, K.
  • Title: Proposal to evaluate pan-Ras/NRAS inhibitors in melanoma and melanoma brain metastases
    Sponsor: Revolution Medicines Inc
    PI: Smalley, K.
  • Title: Defining and Targeting Epigenetic Plasticity-Driven Drug Resistance and Immune Escape in Melanoma
    Sponsor: Nat Institutes of Health
    PI: Smalley, K.
  • Title: Characterization and targeting of the epigenetic state underlying uveal melanoma liver metastasis
    Sponsor: Nat Institutes of Health
    PI: Smalley, K.
  • Title: Targeting the suppressive immune microenvironment in leptomeningeal melanoma metastases
    Sponsor: Nat Institutes of Health
    PI: Smalley, K.
  • Title: Defining and targeting the epigenetic programs involved in melanoma development
    Sponsor: Nat Institutes of Health
    PI: Smalley, K.
  • Title: St of FL Appropriation-CMRC Developmental Funds-10
    Sponsor: State of Florida
    PI (Contact): Cleveland, J., PI (MPI): Smalley, K.