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Harold Saavedra, PhD



    • Cancer Biology and Evolution Program

Education & Training


  • The University of Tennessee Oak Ridge Graduate School of Biomedical Science - PhD - Cell Biology and Genetics


  • University of Cincinnati, Fellow - Cell Biology
  • The Ohio State University, Fellow - Human and Mouse Genetics

  • Jusino S, Rivera-Rivera Y, Chardón-Colón C, Ruiz-Justiz AJ, Vélez-Velázquez J, Isidro A, Cruz-Robles ME, Bonilla-Claudio M, Armaiz-Pena GN, Saavedra HI. E2F3 drives the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, cell invasion, and metastasis in breast cancer. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2021 Oct.246(19):2057-2071. Pubmedid: 34365840. Pmcid: PMC8524769.
  • Colón-Marrero S, Jusino S, Rivera-Rivera Y, Saavedra HI. Mitotic kinases as drivers of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and as therapeutic targets against breast cancers. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2021 May.246(9):1036-1044. Pubmedid: 33601912. Pmcid: PMC8113731.
  • Maan M, Agrawal NJ, Padmanabhan J, Leitzinger CC, Rivera-Rivera Y, Saavedra HI, Chellappan SP. Tank Binding Kinase 1 modulates spindle assembly checkpoint components to regulate mitosis in breast and lung cancer cells. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2021 Mar.1868(3):118929. Pubmedid: 33310066. Pmcid: PMC8054712.
  • Rivera-Rivera Y, Marina M, Jusino S, Lee M, Velázquez JV, Chardón-Colón C, Vargas G, Padmanabhan J, Chellappan SP, Saavedra HI. The Nek2 centrosome-mitotic kinase contributes to the mesenchymal state, cell invasion, and migration of triple-negative breast cancer cells. Sci Rep. 2021 Apr.11(1):9016. Pubmedid: 33907253. Pmcid: PMC8079711.
  • Adon AM, Zeng X, Harrison MK, Sannem S, Kiyokawa H, Kaldis P, Saavedra HI. Correction for Adon et al., "Cdk2 and Cdk4 Regulate the Centrosome Cycle and Are Critical Mediators of Centrosome Amplification in p53-Null Cells". Mol Cell Biol. 2020 Nov.40(23). Pubmedid: 33159003. Pmcid: PMC7652402.
  • Jusino S, Saavedra HI. Role of E2Fs and mitotic regulators controlled by E2Fs in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2019 Nov.244(16):1419-1429. Pubmedid: 31575294. Pmcid: PMC6900705.
  • King JL, Zhang B, Li Y, Li KP, Ni JJ, Saavedra HI, Dong JT. TTK promotes mesenchymal signaling via multiple mechanisms in triple negative breast cancer. Oncogenesis. 2018 Sep.7(9):69. Pubmedid: 30206215. Pmcid: PMC6133923.
  • Jusino S, Fernández-Padín FM, Saavedra HI. Centrosome aberrations and chromosome instability contribute to tumorigenesis and intra-tumor heterogeneity. J Cancer Metastasis Treat. 2018 Nov.4. Pubmedid: 30381801. Pmcid: PMC6205736.
  • Lee M, Gudas LJ, Saavedra HI. Detection of E2F-DNA Complexes Using Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Assays. Methods Mol Biol. 2018.1726:143-151. Pubmedid: 29468550. Pmcid: PMC6070307.
  • Lee M, Rivera-Rivera Y, Moreno CS, Saavedra HI. The E2F activators control multiple mitotic regulators and maintain genomic integrity through Sgo1 and BubR1. Oncotarget. 2017 Sep.8(44):77649-77672. Pubmedid: 29100415. Pmcid: PMC5652806.
  • Rivera-Rivera Y, Saavedra HI. Centrosome - a promising anti-cancer target. Biologics. 2016.10:167-176. Pubmedid: 28008224. Pmcid: PMC5167523.
  • Lee M, Oprea-Ilies G, Saavedra HI. Silencing of E2F3 suppresses tumor growth of Her2+ breast cancer cells by restricting mitosis. Oncotarget. 2015 Nov.6(35):37316-37334. Pubmedid: 26512919. Pmcid: PMC4741932.
  • Ramachandiran S, Adon A, Guo X, Wang Y, Wang H, Chen Z, Kowalski J, Sunay UR, Young AN, Brown T, Mar JC, Du Y, Fu H, Mann KP, Natkunam Y, Boise LH, Saavedra HI, Lossos IS, Bernal-Mizrachi L. Chromosome instability in diffuse large B cell lymphomas is suppressed by activation of the noncanonical NF-κB pathway. Int J Cancer. 2015 May.136(10):2341-2351. Pubmedid: 25359525. Pmcid: PMC4880031.
  • Lee MY, Moreno CS, Saavedra HI. E2F activators signal and maintain centrosome amplification in breast cancer cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2014 Jul.34(14):2581-2599. Pubmedid: 24797070. Pmcid: PMC4097658.
  • Harrison Pitner MK, Saavedra HI. Cdk4 and nek2 signal binucleation and centrosome amplification in a her2+ breast cancer model. PLoS One. 2014 Jan.8(6):e65971. Pubmedid: 23776583. Pmcid: PMC3679029.
  • Marina M, Saavedra HI. Nek2 and Plk4: prognostic markers, drivers of breast tumorigenesis and drug resistance. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2014 Jan.19:352-365. Pubmedid: 24389189. Pmcid: PMC3999971.
  • Brown DI, Lassègue B, Lee M, Zafari R, Long JS, Saavedra HI, Griendling KK. Poldip2 knockout results in perinatal lethality, reduced cellular growth and increased autophagy of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. PLoS One. 2014.9(5):e96657. Pubmedid: 24797518. Pmcid: PMC4010529.
  • Lee MY, Marina M, King JL, Saavedra HI. Differential expression of centrosome regulators in Her2+ breast cancer cells versus non-tumorigenic MCF10A cells. Cell Div. 2014.9:3. Pubmedid: 25278993. Pmcid: PMC4181616.
  • Hagen KR, Zeng X, Lee MY, Tucker Kahn S, Harrison Pitner MK, Zaky SS, Liu Y, O'Regan RM, Deng X, Saavedra HI. Silencing CDK4 radiosensitizes breast cancer cells by promoting apoptosis. Cell Div. 2013 Jul.8(1):10. Pubmedid: 23886499. Pmcid: PMC3733890.
  • Harrison MK, Adon AM, Saavedra HI. The G1 phase Cdks regulate the centrosome cycle and mediate oncogene-dependent centrosome amplification. Cell Div. 2011 Jan.6:2. Pubmedid: 21272329. Pmcid: PMC3038874.
  • Zeng X, Shaikh FY, Harrison MK, Adon AM, Trimboli AJ, Carroll KA, Sharma N, Timmers C, Chodosh LA, Leone G, Saavedra HI. The Ras oncogene signals centrosome amplification in mammary epithelial cells through cyclin D1/Cdk4 and Nek2. Oncogene. 2010 Sep.29(36):5103-5112. Pubmedid: 20581865. Pmcid: PMC2972189.
  • Adon AM, Zeng X, Harrison MK, Sannem S, Kiyokawa H, Kaldis P, Saavedra HI. Cdk2 and Cdk4 regulate the centrosome cycle and are critical mediators of centrosome amplification in p53-null cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2010 Feb.30(3):694-710. Pubmedid: 19933848. Pmcid: PMC2812235.
  • Timmers C, Sharma N, Opavsky R, Maiti B, Wu L, Wu J, Orringer D, Trikha P, Saavedra HI, Leone G. E2f1, E2f2, and E2f3 control E2F target expression and cellular proliferation via a p53-dependent negative feedback loop. Mol Cell Biol. 2007 Jan.27(1):65-78. Pubmedid: 17167174. Pmcid: PMC1800646.
  • Jiang Y, Saavedra HI, Holloway MP, Leone G, Altura RA. Aberrant regulation of survivin by the RB/E2F family of proteins. J Biol Chem. 2004 Sep.279(39):40511-40520. Pubmedid: 15271987.
  • de Bruin A, Wu L, Saavedra HI, Wilson P, Yang Y, Rosol TJ, Weinstein M, Robinson ML, Leone G. Rb function in extraembryonic lineages suppresses apoptosis in the CNS of Rb-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 May.100(11):6546-6551. Pubmedid: 12732721. Pmcid: PMC164483.
  • Shirokawa JM, Elisei R, Knauf JA, Hara T, Wang J, Saavedra HI, Fagin JA. Conditional apoptosis induced by oncogenic ras in thyroid cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2000 Nov.14(11):1725-1738. Pubmedid: 11075808.
  • Saavedra HI, Knauf JA, Shirokawa JM, Wang J, Ouyang B, Elisei R, Stambrook PJ, Fagin JA. The RAS oncogene induces genomic instability in thyroid PCCL3 cells via the MAPK pathway. Oncogene. 2000 Aug.19(34):3948-3954. Pubmedid: 10951588.
  • Saavedra HI, Wang TH, Hoyt PR, Popp D, Yang WK, Stambrook PJ. Interleukin-3 increases the incidence of 5-azacytidine-induced thymic lymphomas in pBOR-Il-3 mice. Cell Immunol. 1996 Oct.173(1):116-123. Pubmedid: 8871607.