The work of Dr. Gillies has impacted all 3 aims of the ET program, with the majority focused on Aim 1: Define & characterize deregulated pathways with therapeutic relevance in subsets of human cancers. Work in this area has examined two different pathways: 1) cell surface proteins that can be targeted by imaging or therapy, and 2) energy metabolic pathways and their sequelae. Dr. Gillies and colleagues have identified targetable cell surface receptors in pancreatic, melanoma and breast cancers. For agents designed to be applied locally, Dr. Gillies and colleagues have looked for single protein targets that are expressed in the cancer or pre-cancer, that are not expressed in normal not adjacent-normal tissues. These can be targeted with homomultivalent ligands (hoMVLs) coupled to dyes or nanoparticles. For agents designed to be applied systemically, they have interrogated the gene expression arrays looking for combinations of cell surface receptors that can be targeted with heteromultivalent ligands (htMVLs). Recently, Dr. Gillies and colleagues have identified both hoMVL and htMVL targets in pancreatic cancers and melanomas, and have identified hoMVL targets for breast cancer in lymph nodes.