Moffitt Cancer Center Logo
 

Robert A. Gatenby, MD

Where You Are:
Robert A. Gatenby, MD

Senior Member

"I am studying theoretical and experimental models of evolutionary dynamics in cancer and cancer drug resistance and a tumor’s physical microenvironment."

Office  (813) 745-2843

Education And Training
  • Chief Resident, Hospital of U Penn, 1981 - Radiology
  • Residency, Hospital of U Penn, 1980 - Radiology
  • Internship, Hershey-Penn State Medical Center, 1978 - Internal Medicine
  • MD, University of Pennsylvania, 1977


Dr. Gatenby spearheaded the formation of a new program at Moffitt titled Integrative Mathematical Oncology (IMO). The IMO brings to the Cancer Center a cadre of applied mathematicians to collaborate with tumor biologists and clinical oncologists. The goal is to use the mathematics developed for other nonlinear dynamical systems to examine the physiology of a tumor incorporating factors such as phenotypic evolution, intracellular communication pathways and interactions with microenvironmental factors including therapies. The program fosters continuous interaction between mathematicians and experimentalists as they form explicit comprehensive theoretical models to serve as a framework for understanding cancer’s development, progression and treatment. The IMO, led by Dr. Gatenby, represents an experiment in rethinking paradigms in medical research. A key purpose of the IMO is to provide the quantitative methods that will allow experimentalists and clinicians to frame their hypotheses, simulate their experimental design in-silico, and identify first principles that govern cancer growth and treatment. Dr. Gatenby aims to make progress using methods that have been successful in the physical sciences for centuries —through an iterative partnership between mathematically-oriented theoreticians, biologists and clinical physicians.

  • Frieden BR, Gatenby RA. Cell development obeys maximum Fisher information. Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2014 Feb;5:1017-1032. Pubmedid: 23747917.
  • Gatenby RA. Commentary on a paper by Verbeni et al. Phys Life Rev. 2013 Dec;10(4):480-481. Pubmedid: 24231516.
  • Aktipis CA, Boddy AM, Gatenby RA, Brown JS, Maley CC. Life history trade-offs in cancer evolution. Nat Rev Cancer. 2013 Dec;13(12):883-892. Pubmedid: 24213474.
  • Rietman EA, Friesen DE, Hahnfeldt P, Gatenby R, Hlatky L, Tuszynski JA. An integrated multidisciplinary model describing initiation of cancer and the Warburg hypothesis. Theor Biol Med Model. 2013 Oct;10:39. Pubmedid: 23758735. Pmcid: PMC3689044.
  • Gatenby RA, Grove O, Gillies RJ. Quantitative imaging in cancer evolution and ecology. Radiology. 2013 Oct;269(1):8-15. Pubmedid: 24062559. Pmcid: PMC3781355.
  • Frieden BR, Gatenby RA. Principle of maximum Fisher information from Hardy's axioms applied to statistical systems. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2013 Oct;88(4 Pt 1):042144. Pubmedid: 24229152.
  • Rose T, Caracciolo J, Gatenby R. Cancer survivorship, a unique and growing cohort in medical practice: radiology perspective. Am J Med. 2013 Sep;126(9):759-767. Pubmedid: 23870789.
  • Orlando PA, Brown JS, Gatenby RA, Giuliano AR. The ecology of human papillomavirus-induced epithelial lesions and the role of somatic evolution in their progression. J Infect Dis. 2013 Aug;208(3):394-402. Pubmedid: 23599315. Pmcid: PMC3698999.
  • Drukteinis JS, Mooney BP, Flowers CI, Gatenby RA. Beyond mammography: new frontiers in breast cancer screening. Am J Med. 2013 Aug;126(6):472-479. Pubmedid: 23561631.
  • Roche B, Hochberg ME, Caulin AF, Maley CC, Gatenby RA, Misse D, Thomas F. Natural resistance to cancers: a Darwinian hypothesis to explain Peto's paradox. BMC Cancer. 2013 Jun;12:387. Pubmedid: 22943484. Pmcid: PMC3488527.
  • Gatenby RA, Frieden BR. The critical roles of information and nonequilibrium thermodynamics in evolution of living systems. Bull Math Biol. 2013 Apr;75(4):589-601. Pubmedid: 23456476.
  • Gu Y, Kumar V, Hall LO, Goldgof DB, Li CY, Korn R, Bendtsen C, Velazquez ER, Dekker A, Aerts H, Lambin P, Li X, Tian J, Gatenby RA, Gillies RJ. Automated Delineation of Lung Tumors from CT Images Using a Single Click Ensemble Segmentation Approach. Pattern Recognit. 2013 Mar;46(3):692-702. Pubmedid: 23459617.
  • Estrella V, Chen T, Lloyd M, Wojtkowiak J, Cornnell HH, Ibrahim-Hashim A, Bailey K, Balagurunathan Y, Rothberg JM, Sloane BF, Johnson J, Gatenby RA, Gillies RJ. Acidity generated by the tumor microenvironment drives local invasion. Cancer Res. 2013 Mar;73(5):1524-1535. Pubmedid: 23288510. Pmcid: PMC3594450.
  • Kumar V, Nath K, Berman CG, Kim J, Tanvetyanon T, Chiappori AA, Gatenby RA, Gillies RJ, Eikman EA. Variance of SUVs for FDG-PET/CT is greater in clinical practice than under ideal study settings. Clin Nucl Med. 2013 Mar;38(3):175-182. Pubmedid: 23354032. Pmcid: PMC3578161.
  • Liu L, Duclos G, Sun B, Lee J, Wu A, Kam Y, Sontag ED, Stone HA, Sturm JC, Gatenby RA, Austin RH. Minimization of thermodynamic costs in cancer cell invasion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jan;110(5):1686-1691. Pubmedid: 23319630. Pmcid: PMC3562811.
  • Alfarouk KO, Ibrahim ME, Gatenby RA, Brown JS. Riparian ecosystems in human cancers. Evol Appl. 2013 Jan;6(1):46-53. Pubmedid: 23396634. Pmcid: PMC3567470.
  • Orlando PA, Gatenby RA, Brown JS. Tumor evolution in space: the effects of competition colonization tradeoffs on tumor invasion dynamics. Front Oncol. 2013;3:45. Pubmedid: 23508890. Pmcid: PMC3589695.
  • Agus DB, Alexander JF, Arap W, Ashili S, Aslan JE, Austin RH, Backman V, Bethel KJ, Bonneau R, Chen WC, Chen-Tanyolac C, Choi NC, Curley SA, Dallas M, Damania D, Davies PC, Decuzzi P, Dickinson L, Estevez-Salmeron L, Estrella V, Ferrari M, Fischbach C, Foo J, Fraley SI, Frantz C, Fuhrmann A, Gascard P, Gatenby RA, Geng Y, Gerecht S, Gillies RJ, Godin B, Grady WM, Greenfield A, Hemphill C, Hempstead BL, Hielscher A, Hillis WD, Holland EC, Ibrahim-Hashim A, Jacks T, Johnson RH, Joo A, Katz JE, Kelbauskas L, Kesselman C, King MR, Konstantopoulos K, Kraning-Rush CM, Kuhn P, Kung K, Kwee B, Lakins JN, Lambert G, Liao D, Licht JD, Liphardt JT, Liu L, Lloyd MC, Lyubimova A, Mallick P, Marko J, McCarty OJ, Meldrum DR, Michor F, Mumenthaler SM, Nandakumar V, O'Halloran TV, Oh S, Pasqualini R, Paszek MJ, Philips KG, Poultney CS, Rana K, Reinhart-King CA, Ros R, Semenza GL, Senechal P, Shuler ML, Srinivasan S, Staunton JR, Stypula Y, Subramanian H, Tlsty TD, Tormoen GW, Tseng Y, van Oudenaarden A, Verbridge SS, Wan JC, Weaver VM, Widom J, Will C, Wirtz D, Wojtkowiak J, Wu PH. A physical sciences network characterization of non-tumorigenic and metastatic cells. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1449. Pubmedid: 23618955. Pmcid: PMC3636513.
  • Silva AS, Kam Y, Khin ZP, Minton SE, Gillies RJ, Gatenby RA. Evolutionary approaches to prolong progression-free survival in breast cancer. Cancer Res. 2012 Dec;72(24):6362-6370. Pubmedid: 23066036. Pmcid: PMC3525750.
  • Gatenby R. Perspective: Finding cancer's first principles. Nature. 2012 Nov;491(7425):S55. Pubmedid: 23320287.
  • Kumar V, Gu Y, Basu S, Berglund A, Eschrich SA, Schabath MB, Forster K, Aerts HJ, Dekker A, Fenstermacher D, Goldgof DB, Hall LO, Lambin P, Balagurunathan Y, Gatenby RA, Gillies RJ. Radiomics: the process and the challenges. Magn Reson Imaging. 2012 Nov;30(9):1234-1248. Pubmedid: 22898692. Pmcid: PMC3563280.
  • Gillies RJ, Flowers CI, Drukteinis JS, Gatenby RA. A unifying theory of carcinogenesis, and why targeted therapy doesn't work. Eur J Radiol. 2012 Sep;81 Suppl 1:S48-S50. Pubmedid: 23083599.
  • Cunningham J, Estrella V, Lloyd M, Gillies R, Frieden BR, Gatenby R. Intracellular electric field and pH optimize protein localization and movement. PLoS One. 2012 Sep;7(5):e36894. Pubmedid: 22623963. Pmcid: PMC3356409.
  • Ibrahim-Hashim A, Cornnell HH, Abrahams D, Lloyd M, Bui M, Gillies RJ, Gatenby RA. Systemic buffers inhibit carcinogenesis in TRAMP mice. J Urology. 2012 Aug;188(2):624-631. Pubmedid: 22704445. Pmcid: PMC3694604.
  • Gillies RJ, Verduzco D, Gatenby RA. Evolutionary dynamics of carcinogenesis and why targeted therapy does not work. Nat Rev Cancer. 2012 Jul;12(7):487-493. Pubmedid: 22695393.
  • Basanta D, Gatenby RA, Anderson AR. Exploiting evolution to treat drug resistance: combination therapy and the double bind. Mol Pharm. 2012 Apr;9(4):914-921. Pubmedid: 22369188. Pmcid: PMC3325107.
  • Martin NK, Robey IF, Gaffney EA, Gillies RJ, Gatenby RA, Maini PK. Predicting the safety and efficacy of buffer therapy to raise tumour pHe: an integrative modelling study. Br J Cancer. 2012 Mar;106(7):1280-1287. Pubmedid: 22382688. Pmcid: PMC3314784.
  • Ribeiro MdLC, Silva AS, Bailey KM, Kumar NB, Sellers TA, Gatenby RA, Arig IH, Gillies RJ. Buffer therapy for cancer. J Nutr Food Sci. 2012 Jan;1-7.
  • Orlando PA, Gatenby RA, Giuliano AR, Brown JS. Evolutionary ecology of human papillomavirus: trade-offs, coexistence, and origins of high-risk and low-risk types. J Infect Dis. 2012 Jan;205(2):272-279. Pubmedid: 22090448. Pmcid: PMC3244363.
  • Ibrahim Hashim A, Cornnell HH, Coelho Ribeiro Mde L, Abrahams D, Cunningham J, Lloyd M, Martinez GV, Gatenby RA, Gillies RJ. Reduction of metastasis using a non-volatile buffer. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2011 Dec;28(8):841-849. Pubmedid: 21861189. Pmcid: PMC3213349.
  • Cunningham JJ, Gatenby RA, Brown JS. Evolutionary dynamics in cancer therapy. Mol Pharm. 2011 Dec;8(6):2094-2100. Pubmedid: 21815657. Pmcid: PMC3250072.
  • Lee HO, Silva AS, Concilio S, Li YS, Slifker M, Gatenby RA, Cheng JD. Evolution of tumor invasiveness: the adaptive tumor microenvironment landscape model. Cancer Res. 2011 Dec;71(20):6327-6337. Pubmedid: 21859828. Pmcid: PMC3197231.
  • Frieden BR, Gatenby RA. Information dynamics in living systems: prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and cancer. PLoS One. 2011 Dec;6(7):e22085. Pubmedid: 21818295. Pmcid: PMC3139603.
  • Silva AS, Gatenby RA. Adaptation to survival in germinal center is the initial step in onset of indolent stage of multiple myeloma. Mol Pharm. 2011 Dec;8(6):2012-2020. Pubmedid: 21958215. Pmcid: PMC3437606.
  • Gatenby RA, Gillies RJ. Integrated imaging of cancer metabolism. Acad Radiol. 2011 Aug;18(8):929-931. Pubmedid: 21718952. Pmcid: PMC3753802.
  • Perfahl H, Byrne HM, Chen T, Estrella V, Alarcón T, Lapin A, Gatenby RA, Gillies RJ, Lloyd MC, Maini PK, Reuss M, Owen MR. Multiscale modelling of vascular tumour growth in 3D: the roles of domain size and boundary conditions. PLoS One. 2011 Aug;6(4):e14790. Pubmedid: 21533234. Pmcid: PMC3076378.
  • Basu S, Kwee TC, Gatenby R, Saboury B, Torigian DA, Alavi A. Evolving role of molecular imaging with PET in detecting and characterizing heterogeneity of cancer tissue at the primary and metastatic sites, a plausible explanation for failed attempts to cure malignant disorders. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2011 Jun;38(6):987-991. Pubmedid: 21451997.
  • Gatenby RA, Gillies RJ, Brown JS. Of cancer and cave fish. Nat Rev Cancer. 2011 Apr;11(4):237-238. Pubmedid: 21548400. Pmcid: PMC3971416.
  • Silva A, Anderson AR, Gatenby R. A multiscale model of the bone marrow and hematopoiesis. Math Biosci Eng. 2011 Apr;8(2):643-658. Pubmedid: 21631151. Pmcid: PMC3754791.
  • Schofield JW, Gaffney EA, Gatenby RA, Maini PK. Tumour angiogenesis: the gap between theory and experiments. J Theor Biol. 2011 Apr;274(1):97-102. Pubmedid: 21255588.
  • Martin NK, Gaffney EA, Gatenby RA, Gillies RJ, Robey IF, Maini PK. A mathematical model of tumour and blood pHe regulation: The HCO3-/CO2 buffering system. Math Biosci. 2011 Mar;230(1):1-11. Pubmedid: 21167185. Pmcid: PMC3045481.
  • Martin NK, Gaffney EA, Gatenby RA, Maini PK. Leaky vessels as a potential source of stromal acidification in tumours. J Theor Biol. 2010 Dec;267(3):454-460. Pubmedid: 20699102. Pmcid: PMC2963718.
  • Martin NK, Gaffney EA, Gatenby RA, Maini PK. Tumour-stromal interactions in acid-mediated invasion: a mathematical model. J Theor Biol. 2010 Dec;267(3):461-470. Pubmedid: 20816684. Pmcid: PMC3005191.
  • Gatenby RA, Frieden BR. Coulomb interactions between cytoplasmic electric fields and phosphorylated messenger proteins optimize information flow in cells. PLoS One. 2010 Nov;5(8):e12084. Pubmedid: 20711447. Pmcid: PMC2920310.
  • Huber V, De Milito A, Harguindey S, Reshkin SJ, Wahl ML, Rauch C, Chiesi A, Pouyssegur J, Gatenby RA, Rivoltini L, Fais S. Proton dynamics in cancer. J Transl Med. 2010 Oct;8:57. Pubmedid: 20550689. Pmcid: PMC2905351.
  • Gatenby RA, Gillies RJ, Brown JS. Evolutionary dynamics of cancer prevention. Nat Rev Cancer. 2010 Aug;10(8):526-527. Pubmedid: 21137109. Pmcid: PMC3744108.
  • Gillies RJ, Anderson AR, Gatenby RA, Morse DL. The biology underlying molecular imaging in oncology: from genome to anatome and back again. Clin Radiol. 2010 Jul;65(7):517-521. Pubmedid: 20541651.
  • Silva AS, Gatenby RA. A theoretical quantitative model for evolution of cancer chemotherapy resistance. Biol Direct. 2010 Jul;5:25. Pubmedid: 20406443. Pmcid: PMC2868834.
  • Tafreshi NK, Kumar V, Morse DL, Gatenby RA. Molecular and functional imaging of breast cancer. Cancer Control. 2010 Jul;17(3):143-155. Pubmedid: 20664511.
  • Smallbone K, Maini PK, Gatenby RA. Episodic, transient systemic acidosis delays evolution of the malignant phenotype: Possible mechanism for cancer prevention by increased physical activity. Biol Direct. 2010 Jul;5:22. Pubmedid: 20406440. Pmcid: PMC2864239.
  • Silva AS, Gatenby RA, Gillies RJ, Yunes JA. A quantitative theoretical model for the development of malignancy in ductal carcinoma in situ. J Theor Biol. 2010 Feb;262(4):601-613. Pubmedid: 19887072.
  • Wolkenhauer O, Auffray C, Baltrusch S, Blüthgen N, Byrne H, Cascante M, Ciliberto A, Dale T, Drasdo D, Fell D, Ferrell JE, Gallahan D, Gatenby R, Günther U, Harms BD, Herzel H, Junghanss C, Kunz M, van Leeuwen I, Lenormand P, Levi F, Linnebacher M, Lowengrub J, Maini PK, Malik A, Rateitschak K, Sansom O, Schäfer R, Schürrle K, Sers C, Schnell S, Shibata D, Tyson J, Vera J, White M, Zhivotovsky B, Jaster R. Systems biologists seek fuller integration of systems biology approaches in new cancer research programs. Cancer Res. 2010 Jan;70(1):12-13. Pubmedid: 20028868. Pmcid: PMC2802734.
  • Gatenby RA, Brown J, Vincent T. Lessons from applied ecology: cancer control using an evolutionary double bind. Cancer Res. 2009 Oct;69(19):7499-7502. Pubmedid: 19752088.
  • Meads MB, Gatenby RA, Dalton WS. Environment-mediated drug resistance: a major contributor to minimal residual disease. Nat Rev Cancer. 2009 Sep;9(9):665-674. Pubmedid: 19693095.
  • Frieboes HB, Edgerton ME, Fruehauf JP, Rose FR, Worrall LK, Gatenby RA, Ferrari M, Cristini V. Prediction of drug response in breast cancer using integrative experimental/computational modeling. Cancer Res. 2009 Jul;69(10):4484-4492. Pubmedid: 19366802. Pmcid: PMC2720602.
  • Gatenby RA, Silva AS, Gillies RJ, Frieden BR. Adaptive therapy. Cancer Res. 2009 Jun;69(11):4894-4903. Pubmedid: 19487300. Pmcid: PMC3728826.
  • Silva AS, Yunes JA, Gillies RJ, Gatenby RA. The potential role of systemic buffers in reducing intratumoral extracellular pH and acid-mediated invasion. Cancer Res. 2009 May;69(6):2677-2684. Pubmedid: 19276380. Pmcid: PMC3718046.
  • Gatenby RA. A change of strategy in the war on cancer. Nature. 2009 May;459(7246):508-509. Pubmedid: 19478766.
  • Robey IF, Baggett BK, Kirkpatrick ND, Roe DJ, Dosescu J, Sloane BF, Hashim AI, Morse DL, Raghunand N, Gatenby RA, Gillies RJ. Bicarbonate increases tumor pH and inhibits spontaneous metastases. Cancer Res. 2009 Mar;69(6):2260-2268. Pubmedid: 19276390. Pmcid: PMC2834485.
  • Aebersold R, Auffray C, Baney E, Barillot E, Brazma A, Brett C, Brunak S, Butte A, Califano A, Celis J, Cufer T, Ferrell J, Galas D, Gallahan D, Gatenby R, Goldbeter A, Hace N, Henney A, Hood L, Iyengar R, Jackson V, Kallioniemi O, Klingmüller U, Kolar P, Kolch W, Kyriakopoulou C, Laplace F, Lehrach H, Marcus F, Matrisian L, Nolan G, Pelkmans L, Potti A, Sander C, Seljak M, Singer D, Sorger P, Stunnenberg H, Superti-Furga G, Uhlen M, Vidal M, Weinstein J, Wigle D, Williams M, Wolkenhauer O, Zhivotovsky B, Zinovyev A, Zupan B. Report on EU-USA workshop: how systems biology can advance cancer research (27 October 2008). Mol Oncol. 2009 Feb;3(1):9-17. Pubmedid: 19383362. Pmcid: PMC2930781.
  • Krupinski EA, Patel B, Berger W, Hamilton AJ, Knapp AE, Becker GJ, Gatenby RA. Assessing radiology resident preparedness to manage IV contrast media reactions using simulation technology. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2009;142:139-141. Pubmedid: 19377133.
  • Smallbone K, Gatenby R, Maini P. Mathematical modelling of tumour acidity. J Theor Biol. 2008 Nov;255(1):106-112. Pubmedid: 18725231.
  • Huang L, Lai YC, Gatenby RA. Dynamics-based scalability of complex networks. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2008 Oct;78(4 Pt 2):045102-. Pubmedid: 18999478.
  • Fang JS, Gillies RD, Gatenby RA. Adaptation to hypoxia and acidosis in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Semin Cancer Biol. 2008 Oct;18(5):330-337. Pubmedid: 18455429. Pmcid: PMC2953714.
  • Frieden BR, Gatenby RA. Conditions for correspondence between Hartree scattering and biological growth. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2008 Oct;78(4 Pt 1):041902-. Pubmedid: 18999450.
  • Gatenby R, Frieden B. Inducing catastrophe in malignant growth. Math Med Biol. 2008 Sep;25(3):267-283. Pubmedid: 18628244.
  • Robey IF, Stephen RM, Brown KS, Baggett BK, Gatenby RA, Gillies RJ. Regulation of the Warburg effect in early-passage breast cancer cells. Neoplasia. 2008 Aug;10(8):745-756. Pubmedid: 18670636. Pmcid: PMC2481565.
  • Gillies R, Robey I, Gatenby R. Causes and consequences of increased glucose metabolism of cancers. J Nucl Med. 2008 Jun;49 Suppl 2:24S-42S. Pubmedid: 18523064.
  • Vincent T, Gatenby R. An evolutionary model for initiation, promotion, and progression in carcinogenesis. Int J Oncol. 2008 Apr;32(4):729-737. Pubmedid: 18360700.
  • Huang L, Lai Y, Gatenby R. Optimization of synchronization in complex clustered networks. Chaos. 2008 Mar;18(1):013101-013101. Pubmedid: 18377052.
  • Huang L, Lai Y, Gatenby R. Alternating synchronizability of complex clustered networks with regular local structure. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2008 Jan;77(1 Pt 2):016103-016103. Pubmedid: 18351911.
  • Gatenby R, Gillies R. A microenvironmental model of carcinogenesis. Nat Rev Cancer. 2008 Jan;8(1):56-61. Pubmedid: 18059462.
  • Moellering R, Black K, Krishnamurty C, Baggett B, Stafford P, Rain M, Gatenby R, Gillies R. Acid treatment of melanoma cells selects for invasive phenotypes. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2008;25(4):411-425. Pubmedid: 18301995.
  • Gatenby R, Gillies R. Glycolysis in cancer: a potential target for therapy. Int J Biochem Cell B. 2007 Oct;39(7-8):1358-1366. Pubmedid: 17499003.
  • Sanga S, Frieboes HB, Zheng X, Gatenby R, Bearer EL, Cristini V. Predictive oncology: a review of multidisciplinary, multiscale in silico modeling linking phenotype, morphology and growth. Neuroimage. 2007 Oct;37 Suppl 1:S120-S134. Pubmedid: 17629503. Pmcid: PMC2245890.
  • Gatenby R, Smallbone K, Maini P, Rose F, Averill J, Nagle R, Worrall L, Gillies R. Cellular adaptations to hypoxia and acidosis during somatic evolution of breast cancer. Brit J Cancer. 2007 Oct;97(5):646-653. Pubmedid: 17687336. Pmcid: PMC2360372.
  • Gillies R, Gatenby R. Adaptive landscapes and emergent phenotypes: why do cancers have high glycolysis?. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2007 Jun;39(3):251-257. Pubmedid: 17624581.
  • Gillies R, Gatenby R. Hypoxia and adaptive landscapes in the evolution of carcinogenesis. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2007 Jun;26(2):311-317. Pubmedid: 17404691.
  • Smallbone K, Gatenby R, Gillies R, Maini P, Gavaghan D. Metabolic changes during carcinogenesis: potential impact on invasiveness. J Theor Biol. 2007 Feb;244(4):703-713. Pubmedid: 17055536.
  • Gatenby R, Frieden B. Information theory in living systems, methods, applications, and challenges. Bull Math Biol. 2007 Feb;69(2):635-657. Pubmedid: 17083004.
  • Gatenby RA. Commentary: carcinogenesis as Darwinian evolution? Do the math!. Int J Epidemiol. 2006 Oct;35(5):1165-1167. Pubmedid: 16990285.
  • Gatenby R, Gawlinski E, Gmitro A, Kaylor B, Gillies R. Acid-mediated tumor invasion: a multidisciplinary study. Cancer Res. 2006 May;66(10):5216-5223. Pubmedid: 16707446.
  • Frieboes HB, Zheng X, Sun CH, Tromberg B, Gatenby R, Cristini V. An integrated computational/experimental model of tumor invasion. Cancer Res. 2006 Feb;66(3):1597-1604. Pubmedid: 16452218.
  • Cristini V, Frieboes HB, Gatenby R, Caserta S, Ferrari M, Sinek J. Morphologic instability and cancer invasion. Clin Cancer Res. 2005 Oct;11(19 Pt 1):6772-6779. Pubmedid: 16203763.
  • Frieden BR, Gatenby RA. Power laws of complex systems from extreme physical information. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2005 Sep;72(3 Pt 2):036101. Pubmedid: 16241509.
  • Smallbone K, Gavaghan D, Gatenby R, Maini P. The role of acidity in solid tumour growth and invasion. J Theor Biol. 2005 Aug;235(4):476-484. Pubmedid: 15935166.
  • Gatenby R, Frieden B. Information dynamics in carcinogenesis and tumor growth. Mutat Res. 2004 Dec;568(2):259-273. Pubmedid: 15542113.
  • Gatenby R, Gillies R. Why do cancers have high aerobic glycolysis?. Nat Rev Cancer. 2004 Nov;4(11):891-899. Pubmedid: 15516961.
  • Gatenby RA, Vincent TL. An evolutionary model of carcinogenesis. Cancer Res. 2003 Oct;63(19):6212-6220. Pubmedid: 14559806.
  • Gatenby RA, Vincent TL. Application of quantitative models from population biology and evolutionary game theory to tumor therapeutic strategies. Mol Cancer Ther. 2003 Sep;2(9):919-927. Pubmedid: 14555711.
  • Gatenby R, Gawlinski E. The glycolytic phenotype in carcinogenesis and tumor invasion: insights through mathematical models. Cancer Res. 2003 Jul;63(14):3847-3854. Pubmedid: 12873971.
  • Gatenby R, Maini P. Mathematical oncology: cancer summed up. Nature. 2003 Jan;421(6921):321-321. Pubmedid: 12540881.
  • Raghunand N, Gatenby R, Gillies R. Microenvironmenalamd cellular consequences of altered blood flow in tumours. Br J Radiol. 2003;76:S11-S22. Pubmedid: 15456710.
  • Gatenby R, Maini P. Modelling a new angle on understanding cancer. Nature. 2002 Dec;420(6915):462-462. Pubmedid: 12466818.
  • Gatenby R, Gawlinski E, Tangen C, Flanigan R, Crawford E. The possible role of postoperative azotemia in enhanced survival of patients with metastatic renal cancer after cytoreductive nephrectomy. Cancer Res. 2002 Sep;62(18):5218-5222. Pubmedid: 12234987.
  • Gatenby R, Frieden B. Application of information theory and extreme physical information to carcinogenesis. Cancer Res. 2002 Jul;62(13):3675-3684. Pubmedid: 12097274.
  • Patel A, Gawlinski E, Lemieux S, Gatenby R. A cellular automaton model of early tumor growth and invasion. J Theor Biol. 2001 Dec;213(3):315-331. Pubmedid: 11735284.
  • Stern R, Milestone B, Gatenby R. Carcinogenesis and the plasma membrane. Med Hypotheses. 1999 May;52(5):367-372. Pubmedid: 10416941.
  • Scott B, Gatenby R. Imaging advances in the diagnosis of endocrine neoplasia. Curr Opin Oncol. 1998 Jan;10(1):37-42. Pubmedid: 9466483 .
  • Scott BA, Gatenby RA. Imaging advances in the diagnosis of endocrine neoplasia. Curr Opin Oncol. 1998 Jan;10(1):37-42. Pubmedid: 9466483.
  • Mercader V, Gatenby R, Mohr R, Fisher M, Caroline D. CT surveillance of the thorax in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a preliminary experience. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1997 May;21(3):412-417. Pubmedid: 9135650 .
  • Stemerman D, Caroline D, Dabezies M, Mercader V, Krevsky B, Gatenby R. Nonexpandable silicone esophageal stents for treatment of malignant tracheoesophageal fistulas: complications and radiographic appearances. Abdom Imaging. 1997 Jan;22(1):14-19. Pubmedid: 9000348 .
  • Gatenby R, Gawlinski E. A reaction-diffusion model of cancer invasion. Cancer Res. 1996 Dec;56(24):5745-5753. Pubmedid: 8971186 .
  • Kramer G, Gatenby R. Malignant plasmacytoma appearing as invasive paranasal sinus disease after cardiac transplantation. Ajnr Am J Neuroradiol. 1996 Sep;17(8):1582-1584. Pubmedid: 8883660 .
  • Gatenby R. Application of competition theory to tumour growth: implications for tumour biology and treatment. Eur J Cancer. 1996 Apr;32A(4):722-726. Pubmedid: 8695279 .
  • Stemerman D, Mercader V, Kramer G, Caroline D, Gatenby R. An unusual presentation of Zenker's diverticulum. Clin Imaging. 1996 Apr;20(2):112-114. Pubmedid: 8744819 .
  • Gatenby R, Seftor E, Hendrix M. Fibroblast Enhancement of Tumor Invasion in a Tumor-Host Interface Recapitulated in-vitro. Pathol Oncol Res. 1996;2(3):151-156. Pubmedid: 11173598.
  • Gatenby R. Models of tumor-host interaction as competing populations: implications for tumor biology and treatment. J Theor Biol. 1995 Oct;176(4):447-455. Pubmedid: 8551743 .
  • Gatenby R. The potential role of transformation-induced metabolic changes in tumor-host interaction. Cancer Res. 1995 Sep;55(18):4151-4156. Pubmedid: 7664293 .
  • Gatenby RA. The potential role of transformation-induced metabolic changes in tumor-host interaction. Cancer Res. 1995 Sep;55(18):4151-4156. Pubmedid: 7664293.
  • Gatenby R. Potential role of FDG-PET imaging in understanding tumor-host interaction. J Nucl Med. 1995 May;36(5):893-899. Pubmedid: 7738670 .
  • Gatenby RA. Potential role of FDG-PET imaging in understanding tumor-host interaction. J Nucl Med. 1995 May;36(5):893-899. Pubmedid: 7738670.
  • Gatenby R. The radiology of drug-induced disorders in the gastrointestinal tract. Semin Roentgenol. 1995 Jan;30(1):62-76. Review. Pubmedid: 7899884 .
  • Gatenby RA. Monitoring substrate uptake and distribution by tumors using percutaneous catheters and solid nuclear track detectors. Invest Radiol. 1994 Sep;29(9):834-838. Pubmedid: 7995702.
  • Gatenby R. Monitoring substrate uptake and distribution by tumors using percutaneous catheters and solid nuclear track detectors. Invest Radiol. 1994 Sep;29(9):834-838. Pubmedid: 7995702 .
  • Unger E, Fritz T, Palestrant D, Meakem T, Granstrom P, Gatenby R. Preliminary evaluation of iron phytate (inositol hexaphosphate) as a gastrointestinal MR contrast agent. J Magn Reson Imaging. 1993 Jan;3(1):119-124. Pubmedid: 8428077 .
  • Unger EC, Fritz TA, Palestrant D, Meakem TJ, Granstrom P, Gatenby RA. Preliminary evaluation of iron phytate (inositol hexaphosphate) as a gastrointestinal MR contrast agent. J Magn Reson Imaging. 1993;3(1):119-124. Pubmedid: 8428077.
  • Gatenby R, Taylor D, Ellison D. Identification of a novel cell population in nonhealing wounds in tumors. J Surg Res. 1992 Aug;53(2):188-194. Pubmedid: 1405608 .
  • Unger E, Coia L, Gatenby R, Kessler H, Hartz W, Clair M, Broder G. CT staging of esophageal carcinoma in patients treated by primary radiationtherapy and chemotherapy. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1992 Mar;16(2):235-239. Pubmedid: 1545019 .
  • Gatenby R. Population ecology issues in tumor growth. Cancer Res. 1991 May;51(10):2542-2547. Pubmedid: 2021934 .
  • Kessler H, Rimer B, Devine P, Gatenby R, Engstrom P. Corporate-sponsored breast cancer screening at the work site: results of a statewide program. Radiology. 1991 Apr;179(1):107-110. Pubmedid: 2006259 .
  • Gatenby R, Hartz W, Kessler H. Percutaneous catheter drainage for malignant pericardial effusion. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 1991 Feb;2(1):151-155. Pubmedid: 1799745 .
  • Gatenby RA, Taylor DD. Suppression of wound healing in tumor bearing animals as a model for tumor-host interaction: mechanism of suppression. Cancer Res. 1990 Dec;50(24):7997-8001. Pubmedid: 2253242.
  • Keidan R, Solin L, Gatenby R, Weese J. CT-guided needle localization for intraoperative biopsy of the head and neck. Laryngoscope. 1990 Jan;100(1):97-98. Pubmedid: 2293708 .
  • Ross G, Kessler H, Clair M, Gatenby R, Hartz W, Ross L. Sonographically guided paracentesis for palliation of symptomatic malignant ascites. Ajr Am J Roentgenol. 1989 Dec;153(6):1309-1311. Pubmedid: 2479242 .
  • Levine M, Ekberg O, Rubesin S, Gatenby R. Gastrointestinal sarcoidosis: radiographic findings. Ajr Am J Roentgenol. 1989 Aug;153(2):293-295. Pubmedid: 2750615 .
  • Unger E, Winokur T, MacDougall P, Rosenblum J, Clair M, Gatenby R, TilcockC. Hepatic metastases: liposomal Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging. Radiology. 1989 Apr;171(1):81-85. Pubmedid: 2928550 .
  • Keidan R, Fanning J, Gatenby R, Weese J. Recurrent typhlitis. A disease resulting from aggressive chemotherapy. Dis Colon Rectum. 1989 Mar;32(3):206-209. Pubmedid: 2920627 .
  • Moldofsky P, Rubenstein J, Richter M, Solin L, Gatenby R, Broder G. Quantitative lung scans for prediction of post-radiotherapy pulmonary function. Clin Nucl Med. 1988 Sep;13(9):644-646. Pubmedid: 3180610 .
  • Unger E, Cohen M, Gatenby R, Clair M, Brown T, Nelson S, McGlone J. Single breath-holding scans of the abdomen using FISP and FLASH at 1.5 T. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1988 Jul;12(4):575-583. Pubmedid: 3392256 .
  • Gatenby RA, Kessler HB, Rosenblum JS, Coia LR, Moldofsky PJ, Hartz WH, Broder GJ. Oxygen distribution in squamous cell carcinoma metastases and its relationship to outcome of radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1988 May;14(5):831-838. Pubmedid: 3360652.
  • Weiner L, Moldofsky P, Gatenby R, O'Dwyer J, O'Brien J, Litwin S, ComisRL. Antibody delivery and effector cell activation in a phase II trial of recombinant gamma-interferon and the murine monoclonal antibody CO17-1A in advanced colorectal carcinoma. Cancer Res. 1988 May;48(9):2568-2573. Pubmedid: 3128400 .
  • Weiner LM, Moldofsky PJ, Gatenby RA, O'Dwyer J, O'Brien J, Litwin S, Comis RL. Antibody delivery and effector cell activation in a phase II trial of recombinant gamma-interferon and the murine monoclonal antibody CO17-1A in advanced colorectal carcinoma. Cancer Res. 1988 May;48(9):2568-2573. Pubmedid: 3128400.
  • Gatenby R, Kessler H, Rosenblum J, Coia L, Moldofsky P, Hartz W, BroderGJ. Oxygen distribution in squamous cell carcinoma metastases and its relationship to outcome of radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1988 May;14(5):831-838. Pubmedid: 3360652 .
  • Gatenby R, Moldofsky P, Weiner L. Metastatic colon cancer: correlation of oxygen levels with I-131 F(ab')2 uptake. Radiology. 1988 Mar;166(3):757-759. Pubmedid: 3340773 .
  • Unger E, Moldofsky P, Gatenby R, Hartz W, Broder G. Diagnosis of osteomyelitis by MR imaging. Ajr Am J Roentgenol. 1988 Mar;150(3):605-610. Pubmedid: 3257618 .
  • Gatenby RA, Moldofsky PJ, Weiner LM. Metastatic colon cancer: correlation of oxygen levels with I-131 F(ab')2 uptake. Radiology. 1988 Mar;166(3):757-759. Pubmedid: 3340773.
  • Gatenby R, Brown T. Tumor oxygenation using direct injection of oxygenated saline. Invest Radiol. 1987 May;22(5):404-407. Pubmedid: 3597008 .
  • Gatenby RA, Brown TR. Tumor oxygenation using direct injection of oxygenated saline. Invest Radiol. 1987 May;22(5):404-407. Pubmedid: 3597008.
  • Gatenby R, Hammond N, Brown D. Tumor therapy with hematoporphyrin derivative and lasers via a percutaneous fiberoptic technique: preclinical experiments. Radiology. 1987 Apr;163(1):167-171. Pubmedid: 3823432 .
  • Gatenby R, Hartz W, Engstrom P, Rosenblum J, Hammond N, Kessler H, Moldofsky P, Clair M, Unger E, Broder G. CT-guided laser therapy in resistant human tumors: phase I clinical trials. Radiology. 1987 Apr;163(1):172-175. Pubmedid: 3823433 .
  • Hartz W, Gatenby R. Interventional radiology in palliative care. Semin Oncol. 1985 Dec;12(4):390-393. Pubmedid: 2417324 .
  • Gatenby R, Rosenblum J, Leonard C, Moldofsky P, Broder G. Esophageal speech: double-contrast evaluation of the pharyngo-esophageal segment. Radiology. 1985 Oct;157(1):127-131. Pubmedid: 4034957 .
  • Gatenby RA, Coia LR, Richter MP, Katz H, Moldofsky PJ, Engstrom P, Brown DQ, Brookland R, Broder GJ. Oxygen tension in human tumors: in vivo mapping using CT-guided probes. Radiology. 1985 Jul;156(1):211-214. Pubmedid: 4001408.
  • Gatenby R, Coia L, Richter M, Katz H, Moldofsky P, Engstrom P, Brown D, Brookland R, Broder G. Oxygen tension in human tumors: in vivo mapping using CT-guided probes. Radiology. 1985 Jul;156(1):211-214. Pubmedid: 4001408 .
  • Gatenby R, Mulhern CB J, Strawitz J, Moldofsky P. Comparison of clinical and computed tomographic staging of head and neck tumors. Ajnr Am J Neuroradiol. 1985 May;6(3):399-401. Pubmedid: 3923796 .
  • Moldofsky P, Sears H, Mulhern CB J, Hammond N, Powe J, Gatenby R, Steplewski Z, Koprowski H. Detection of metastatic tumor in normal-sized retroperitoneal lymph nodes by monoclonal-antibody imaging. N Engl J Med. 1984 Jul;311(2):106-107. Pubmedid: 6738588 .
  • Gatenby R, Mulhern CB J, Richter M, Moldofsky P. CT-guided biopsy for the detection and staging of tumors of the head and neck. Ajnr Am J Neuroradiol. 1984 May;5(3):287-290. Pubmedid: 6426282 .
  • Gatenby R, Mulhern CB J, Broder G, Moldofsky P. Computed-tomographic-guided biopsy of small apical and peripheral upper-lobe lung masses. Radiology. 1984 Feb;150(2):591-592. Pubmedid: 6691121 .
  • Gatenby R, Mulhern CB J, Moldofsky P. Computed tomography guided thin needle biopsy of small lytic bone lesions. Skeletal Radiol. 1984;11(4):289-291. Pubmedid: 6729503 .
  • Gatenby R. Diagnostic evaluation of a renal mass. Semin Oncol. 1983 Dec;10(4):401-412. Pubmedid: 6665567 .
  • Moldofsky P, Powe J, Mulhern CB J, Hammond N, Sears H, Gatenby R, Steplewski Z, Koprowski H. Metastatic colon carcinoma detected with radiolabeled F(ab')2 monoclonal antibody fragments. Radiology. 1983 Nov;149(2):549-555. Pubmedid: 6622704 .
  • Moldofsky PJ, Powe J, Mulhern CB, Hammond N, Sears HF, Gatenby RA, Steplewski Z, Koprowski H. Metastatic colon carcinoma detected with radiolabeled F(ab')2 monoclonal antibody fragments. Radiology. 1983 Nov;149(2):549-555. Pubmedid: 6622704.
  • Creteur V, Laufer I, Kressel H, Caroline D, Goren R, Evers K, Glick S, Gatenby R. Drug-induced esophagitis detected by double-contrast radiography. Radiology. 1983 May;147(2):365-368. Pubmedid: 6836116 .
  • Creteur V, Laufer I, Kressel HY, Caroline DF, Goren RA, Evers KA, Glick SN, Gatenby RA. Drug-induced esophagitis detected by double-contrast radiography. Radiology. 1983 May;147(2):365-368. Pubmedid: 6836116.
  • Gatenby R, Mulhern CB J, Strawitz J. CT-guided percutaneous biopsies of head and neck masses. Radiology. 1983 Mar;146(3):717-719. Pubmedid: 6828687 .
  • Kressel H, Gatenby R, Troupin R, Golden D. Correlative imaging conference: Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. V.Left upper quadrant mass in pregnancy. Ajr Am J Roentgenol. 1982 Jul;139(1):87-91. Pubmedid: 6979871 .
  • Freiman D, Spence R, Gatenby R, Gertner M, Roberts B, Berkowitz H, Ring E, Oleaga J. Transluminal angioplasty of the iliac and femoral arteries: follow-up results without anticoagulation. Radiology. 1981 Nov;141(2):347-350. Pubmedid: 6457315 .
  • Spence R, Freiman D, Gatenby R, Hobbs C, Barker C, Berkowitz H, RobertsB, McClean G, Oleaga J, Ring E. Long-term results of transluminal angioplasty of the iliac and femoral arteries. Arch Surg. 1981 Nov;116(11):1377-1386. Pubmedid: 6458256 .
  • Kressel H, Gatenby R, Troupin R. Correlative imaging conference: Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania.Abdominal pain and blood loss. Ajr Am J Roentgenol. 1981 Oct;137(4):769-775. Pubmedid: 6974974 .
  • Kressel HY, Gatenby RA, Troupin RH. Correlative imaging conference: Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. Abdominal pain and blood loss. Ajr Am J Roentgenol. 1981 Oct;137(4):769-775. Pubmedid: 6974974.
  • McGlynn TJ J, Burnside J, Gatenby R. Symptomatic abdominal bronchogenic cyst mimicking acute ischemic heart disease. Heart Lung. 1981 Jan;10(1):109-111. Pubmedid: 6905820 .
  • Gatenby R, Gawlinski E. Mathematical models of tumour invasion mediated by transformation-induced alteration of microenvironmental pH. Novartis Found Symp. 2001 240;240:85-96. Pubmedid: 11727939.
  • Gillies R, Raghunand N, Garcia-Martin M, Gatenby R. pH imaging. A review of pH measurement methods and applications in cancers. Ieee Eng Med Biol Mag. 23(5):57-64. Pubmedid: 15565800.
  • Raghunand N, Gatenby R, Gillies R. Microenvironmental and cellular consequences of altered blood flow in tumours. Br J Radiol. 2003 76 ;76 Spec No 1:S11-S22. Pubmedid: 15456710.
TOOLS:   Font Size small font resizer separator font resizer separator big font resizer