Keiran S. Smalley, PhD

Where You Are:
Keiran S. Smalley, PhD

Associate Member

Office  (813) 745-8725

Education And Training
  • Research Fellow, Wistar Institute, 2005
  • Fellow, Chester Beatty Laboratory, Institute of Cancer Research, 2003
  • PhD, University of Cambridge, 2001
  • Fellow, UCL Oncology Department, 2001


The goal of research in the Smalley laboratory is to develop personalized therapies for melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer. Over the past few years our lab has used genetic and mutational profiling data to define two new sub-groups of melanoma and have identified therapeutic strategies for each.

  • Johnson DB, Smalley KS, Sosman JA. Molecular Pathways: Targeting NRAS in Melanoma and Acute Myelogenous Leukemia. Clin Cancer Res. 2014 Jun. Pubmedid: 24895460.
  • Fedorenko IV, Fang B, Koomen JM, Gibney GT, Smalley KS. Amuvatinib has cytotoxic effects against NRAS-mutant melanoma but not BRAF-mutant melanoma. Melanoma Res. 2014 Jun. Pubmedid: 24950457.
  • Rebecca VW, Massaro RR, Fedorenko IV, Sondak VK, Anderson AR, Kim E, Amavaradi RK, Maria-Engler SS, Messina JL, Gibney GT, Kudchadkar RR, Smalley KS. Inhibition of autophagy enhances the effects of the AKT inhibitor MK-2206 when combined with paclitaxel and carboplatin in BRAF wild-type melanoma. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2014 May;27(3):465-478. Pubmedid: 24490764.
  • Sloot S, Fedorenko IV, Smalley KS, Gibney GT. Long-term effects of BRAF inhibitors in melanoma treatment: friend or foe?. Expert Opin Pharmaco. 2014 Apr;15(5):589-592. Pubmedid: 24456413.
  • Rebecca VW, Wood ER, Fedorenko IV, Paraiso KH, Haarberg HE, Chen Y, Xiang Y, Sarnaik A, Gibney GT, Sondak VK, Koomen JM, Smalley KS. Evaluating Melanoma Drug Response and Therapeutic Escape with Quantitative Proteomics. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2014 Apr. Pubmedid: 24760959.
  • Haarberg HE, Smalley KS. Resistance to Raf inhibition in cancer. Drug Discov Today Technol. 2014 Mar;11:27-32. Pubmedid: 24847650. Pmcid: PMC4031441.
  • Tiago M, Oliveira EM, Brohem CA, Pennacchi PC, Paes RD, Haga RB, Campa A, Barros SB, Smalley KS, Silvya ME. Fibroblasts Protect Melanoma Cells from the Cytotoxic Effects of Doxorubicin. Tissue Eng Part A. 2014 Mar. Pubmedid: 24548268.
  • Smalley KS, Weber JS. Up close and personal: the challenges of precision medicine in melanoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014 Feb;106(2):djt443. Pubmedid: 24511111.
  • Kim E, Rebecca VW, Fedorenko IV, Messina JL, Mathew R, Maria-Engler SS, Basanta D, Smalley KS, Anderson AR. Senescent fibroblasts in melanoma initiation and progression: an integrated theoretical, experimental, and clinical approach. Cancer Res. 2013 Dec;73(23):6874-6885. Pubmedid: 24080279. Pmcid: PMC3926439.
  • Smalley KS. Overcoming melanoma drug resistance through metabolic targeting?. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2013 Nov;26(6):793-795. Pubmedid: 24152044.
  • Weber JL, Smalley KS, Sondak VK, Gibney GT. Conjunctival Melanomas Harbor BRAF and NRAS Mutations--Letter. Clin Cancer Res. 2013 Nov;19(22):6329-6330. Pubmedid: 24166902.
  • Kenchappa RS, Tran N, Rao NG, Smalley KS, Gibney GT, Sondak VK, Forsyth PA. Novel treatments for melanoma brain metastases. Cancer Control. 2013 Oct;20(4):298-306. Pubmedid: 24077406.
  • Desai BM, Villanueva J, Nguyen TT, Lioni M, Xiao M, Kong J, Krepler C, Vultur A, Flaherty KT, Nathanson KL, Smalley KS, Herlyn M. The anti-melanoma activity of dinaciclib, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, is dependent on p53 signaling. PLoS One. 2013 Sep;8(3):e59588. Pubmedid: 23527225. Pmcid: PMC3601112.
  • Tafreshi NK, Silva A, Estrella VC, McCardle TW, Chen T, Jeune-Smith Y, Lloyd MC, Enkemann SA, Smalley KS, Sondak VK, Vagner J, Morse DL. In vivo and in silico pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of a melanocortin receptor 1 targeted agent in preclinical models of melanoma. Mol Pharm. 2013 Aug;10(8):3175-3185. Pubmedid: 23763620.
  • Pimiento JM, Larkin EM, Smalley KS, Wiersma GL, Monks NR, Fedorenko IV, Peterson CA, Nickoloff BJ. Melanoma genotypes and phenotypes get personal. Lab Invest. 2013 Aug;93(8):858-867. Pubmedid: 23817084.
  • Gibney GT, Messina JL, Fedorenko IV, Sondak VK, Smalley KS. Paradoxical oncogenesis--the long-term effects of BRAF inhibition in melanoma. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2013 Jul;10(7):390-399. Pubmedid: 23712190. Pmcid: PMC3983565.
  • Haarberg HE, Paraiso KH, Wood E, Rebecca VW, Sondak VK, Koomen JM, Smalley KS. Inhibition of Wee1, AKT, and CDK4 underlies the efficacy of the HSP90 inhibitor XL888 in an in vivo model of NRAS-mutant melanoma. Mol Cancer Ther. 2013 Jun;12(6):901-912. Pubmedid: 23538902. Pmcid: PMC3683468.
  • Fedorenko IV, Gibney GT, Smalley KS. NRAS mutant melanoma: biological behavior and future strategies for therapeutic management. Oncogene. 2013 Jun;32(25):3009-3018. Pubmedid: 23069660. Pmcid: PMC3978385.
  • Smalley KS, Weber JS. Taming the wild-types: targeting PAK1 in melanomas that lack BRAF mutations. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013 Jun;105(9):591-592. Pubmedid: 23535072.
  • Smalley KS. Mutant BRAF: a novel mediator of microenvironmental escape in melanoma?. J Invest Dermatol. 2013 May;133(5):1135-1137. Pubmedid: 23594535.
  • Lo RS, Ribas A, Long GV, Ballotti R, Berger M, Willy H, Gibney GT, Bosenberg M, Bernstein E, Villanueva J, Smalley KS. Meeting report from the Society for Melanoma Research 2012 Congress, Hollywood, California. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2013 Apr;26(4):E1-E7. Pubmedid: 23551976.
  • Paraiso KH, Smalley KS. Fibroblast-mediated drug resistance in cancer. Biochem Pharmacol. 2013 Apr;85(8):1033-1041. Pubmedid: 23376122.
  • Kudchadkar RR, Smalley KS, Glass LF, Trimble JS, Sondak VK. Targeted therapy in melanoma. Clin Dermatol. 2013 Mar;31(2):200-208. Pubmedid: 23438383.
  • Gibney GT, Smalley KS. An unholy alliance: cooperation between BRAF and NF1 in melanoma development and BRAF inhibitor resistance. Cancer Discov. 2013 Mar;3(3):260-263. Pubmedid: 23475878. Pmcid: PMC3595124.
  • Beck D, Niessner H, Smalley KS, Flaherty K, Paraiso KH, Busch C, Sinnberg T, Vasseur S, Iovanna JL, Drießen S, Stork B, Wesselborg S, Schaller M, Biedermann T, Bauer J, Lasithiotakis K, Weide B, Eberle J, Schittek B, Schadendorf D, Garbe C, Kulms D, Meier F. Vemurafenib potently induces endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in BRAFV600E melanoma cells. Sci Signal. 2013 Jan;6(260):ra7. Pubmedid: 23362240. Pmcid: PMC3698985.
  • Smalley KS, Sondak VK. Skin cancer: Targeted therapy for melanoma: is double hitting a home run?. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2013 Jan;10(1):5-6. Pubmedid: 23207793.
  • John JK, Paraiso KH, Rebecca VW, Cantini LP, Abel EV, Pagano N, Meggers E, Mathew R, Krepler C, Izumi V, Fang B, Koomen JM, Messina JL, Herlyn M, Smalley KS. GSK3β inhibition blocks melanoma cell/host interactions by downregulating N-cadherin expression and decreasing FAK phosphorylation. J Invest Dermatol. 2012 Dec;132(12):2818-2827. Pubmedid: 22810307. Pmcid: PMC3479306.
  • Paraiso KH, Smalley KS. Making Sense of MEK1 Mutations in Intrinsic and Acquired BRAF Inhibitor Resistance. Cancer Discov. 2012 May;2(5):390-392. Pubmedid: 22588873.
  • Flach EH, Rebecca VW, Herlyn M, Smalley KS, Anderson AR. Fibroblasts contribute to melanoma tumor growth and drug resistance. Mol Pharm. 2012 May;8(6):2039-2049. Pubmedid: 22067046. Pmcid: PMC3235959.
  • Paraiso KH, Haarberg HE, Wood E, Rebecca VW, Chen YA, Xiang Y, Ribas A, Lo RS, Weber JS, Sondak VK, John JK, Sarnaik AA, Koomen JM, Smalley KS. The HSP90 inhibitor XL888 overcomes BRAF inhibitor resistance mediated through diverse mechanisms. Clin Cancer Res. 2012 May;18(9):2502-2514. Pubmedid: 22351686. Pmcid: PMC3398738.
  • Smalley KS, McArthur GA. The current state of targeted therapy in melanoma: this time it's personal. Semin Oncol. 2012 Apr;39(2):204-214. Pubmedid: 22484192. Pmcid: PMC3322364.
  • Rebecca VW, Sondak VK, Smalley KS. A brief history of melanoma: from mummies to mutations. Melanoma Res. 2012 Apr;22(2):114-122. Pubmedid: 22395415. Pmcid: PMC3303163.
  • Smalley KS, Aplin AE, Flaherty KT, Hoeller C, Bosserhoff AK, Haass NK, Bosenberg M, Ribas A, Barnhill R, Kudchadkar R, Messina JL. Meeting report from the 2011 International Melanoma Congress, Tampa, Florida. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2012 Jan;25(1):E1-11. Pubmedid: 22117673.
  • Smalley KS. Preface. Adv Pharmacol. 2012;65:xi-xiii. Pubmedid: 22959037.
  • Fedorenko IV, Paraiso KH, Smalley KS. Acquired and intrinsic BRAF inhibitor resistance in BRAF V600E mutant melanoma. Biochem Pharmacol. 2011 Aug;82(3):201-209. Pubmedid: 21635872. Pmcid: PMC4001781.
  • Remily-Wood ER, Liu RZ, Xiang Y, Chen Y, Thomas CE, Rajyaguru N, Kaufman LM, Ochoa JE, Hazlehurst L, Pinilla-Ibarz J, Lancet J, Zhang G, Haura E, Shibata D, Yeatman T, Smalley KS, Dalton WS, Huang E, Scott E, Bloom GC, Eschrich SA, Koomen JM. A database of reaction monitoring mass spectrometry assays for elucidating therapeutic response in cancer. Proteomics Clin Appl. 2011 Aug;5(7-8):383-396. Pubmedid: 21656910. Pmcid: PMC3530891.
  • Sondak VK, Smalley KS, Kudchadkar R, Grippon S, Kirkpatrick P. Ipilimumab. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2011 Jun;10(6):411-412. Pubmedid: 21629286.
  • John JK, Smalley KS. Identification of BRAF mutations in eruptive melanocytic nevi: new insights into melanomagenesis?. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2011 May;11(5):711-714. Pubmedid: 21554046. Pmcid: PMC3119904.
  • Paraiso KH, Xiang Y, Rebecca VW, Abel EV, Chen YA, Munko AC, Wood E, Fedorenko IV, Sondak VK, Anderson AR, Ribas A, Palma MD, Nathanson KL, Koomen JM, Messina JL, Smalley KS. PTEN loss confers BRAF inhibitor resistance to melanoma cells through the suppression of BIM expression. Cancer Res. 2011 Apr;71(7):2750-2760. Pubmedid: 21317224. Pmcid: PMC3070772.
  • Koomen JM, Smalley KS. Using quantitative proteomic analysis to understand genotype specific intrinsic drug resistance in melanoma. Oncotarget. 2011 Apr;2(4):329-335. Pubmedid: 21505227. Pmcid: PMC3248164.
  • Hersey P, Smalley KS, Weeraratna A, Bosenberg M, Zhang XD, Haass NK, Paton E, Mann G, Scolyer RA, Tüting T. Meeting report from the 7th International Melanoma Congress, Sydney, November, 2010. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2011 Feb;24(1):e1-15. Pubmedid: 21232023.
  • Rebecca VW, Smalley KS. Tumor heterogeneity and strategies to overcome kinase inhibitor resistance in cancer: lessons from melanoma. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2011 Feb;20(2):137-140. Pubmedid: 21235427. Pmcid: PMC3078022.
  • Lee JT, Li L, Brafford PA, van den Eijnden M, Halloran MB, Sproesser K, Haass NK, Smalley KS, Tsai J, Bollag G, Herlyn M. PLX4032, a potent inhibitor of the B-Raf V600E oncogene, selectively inhibits V600E-positive melanomas. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2010 Dec;23(6):820-827. Pubmedid: 20973932. Pmcid: PMC3623294.
  • Smalley KS. Introduction to the Biochemical Pharmacology special issue on targeted cancer therapy. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010 Sep;80(5):549. Pubmedid: 20211148. Pmcid: PMC4001788.
  • Fang B, Haura EB, Smalley KS, Eschrich SA, Koomen JM. Methods for investigation of targeted kinase inhibitor therapy using chemical proteomics and phosphorylation profiling. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010 Sep;80(5):739-747. Pubmedid: 20361944. Pmcid: PMC2995952.
  • Smalley KS, Sondak VK. Melanoma--an unlikely poster child for personalized cancer therapy. N Engl J Med. 2010 Aug;363(9):876-878. Pubmedid: 20818849.
  • Paraiso KH, Fedorenko IV, Cantini LP, Munko AC, Hall M, Sondak VK, Messina JL, Flaherty KT, Smalley KS. Recovery of phospho-ERK activity allows melanoma cells to escape from BRAF inhibitor therapy. Brit J Cancer. 2010 Jun;102(12):1724-1730. Pubmedid: 20531415. Pmcid: PMC2883709.
  • Smalley KS. PLX-4032, a small-molecule B-Raf inhibitor for the potential treatment of malignant melanoma. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2010 Jun;11(6):699-706. Pubmedid: 20496265.
  • Smalley KS. Understanding melanoma signaling networks as the basis for molecular targeted therapy. J Invest Dermatol. 2010 Jan;130(1):28-37. Pubmedid: 19571822.
  • Paraiso KH, Der Kooi KV, Messina JL, Smalley KS. Measurement of constitutive MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling activity in human cancer cell lines. Methods Enzymol. 2010;484:549-567. Pubmedid: 21036250. Pmcid: PMC4001792.
  • Flaherty KT, Smalley KS. Preclinical and clinical development of targeted therapy in melanoma: attention to schedule. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2009 Oct;22(5):529-531. Pubmedid: 19619259.
  • Sondak VK, Smalley K. Targeting mutant BRAF and KIT in metastatic melanoma: ASCO 2009 meeting report. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2009 Aug;22(4):386-387. Pubmedid: 19624312.
  • Smalley KS, Flaherty KT. Development of a novel chemical class of BRAF inhibitors offers new hope for melanoma treatment. Future Oncol. 2009 Aug;5(6):775-778. Pubmedid: 19663727.
  • Smalley KS, Sondak VK, Weber JS. c-KIT signaling as the driving oncogenic event in sub-groups of melanomas. Histol Histopathol. 2009 May;24(5):643-650. Pubmedid: 19283671.
  • Smalley KS, Nathanson KL, Flaherty KT. Genetic subgrouping of melanoma reveals new opportunities for targeted therapy. Cancer Res. 2009 Apr;69(8):3241-3244. Pubmedid: 19351826.
  • Smalley KS, Herlyn M. Integrating tumor-initiating cells into the paradigm for melanoma targeted therapy. Int J Cancer. 2009 Mar;124(6):1245-1250. Pubmedid: 19089923.
  • Smalley KS, Flaherty KT. Integrating BRAF/MEK inhibitors into combination therapy for melanoma. Br J Cancer. 2009 Feb;100(3):431-435. Pubmedid: 19156138. Pmcid: PMC2658537.
  • Smalley KS, Xiao M, Villanueva J, Nguyen TK, Flaherty KT, Letrero R, Van Belle P, Elder DE, Wang Y, Nathanson KL, Herlyn M. CRAF inhibition induces apoptosis in melanoma cells with non-V600E BRAF mutations. Oncogene. 2009 Jan;28(1):85-94. Pubmedid: 18794803. Pmcid: PMC2898184.
  • Haass NK, Smalley KS. Melanoma biomarkers: current status and utility in diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy. Mol Diagn Ther. 2009;13(5):283-296. Pubmedid: 19791833.
  • Lioni M, Noma K, Snyder A, Klein-Szanto A, Diehl JA, Rustgi AK, Herlyn M, Smalley KS. Bortezomib induces apoptosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells through activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Mol Cancer Ther. 2008 Sep;7(9):2866-2875. Pubmedid: 18790767. Pmcid: PMC2903039.
  • Smalley KS, Lioni M, Dalla Palma M, Xiao M, Desai B, Egyhazi S, Hansson J, Wu H, King AJ, Van Belle P, Elder DE, Flaherty KT, Herlyn M, Nathanson KL. Increased cyclin D1 expression can mediate BRAF inhibitor resistance in BRAF V600E-mutated melanomas. Mol Cancer Ther. 2008 Sep;7(9):2876-2883. Pubmedid: 18790768. Pmcid: PMC2651569.
  • Smalley KS, Contractor R, Nguyen TK, Xiao M, Edwards R, Muthusamy V, King AJ, Flaherty KT, Bosenberg M, Herlyn M, Nathanson KL. Identification of a novel subgroup of melanomas with KIT/cyclin-dependent kinase-4 overexpression. Cancer Res. 2008 Jul;68(14):5743-5752. Pubmedid: 18632627. Pmcid: PMC2615688.
  • Noma K, Smalley KS, Lioni M, Naomoto Y, Tanaka N, El-Deiry W, King AJ, Nakagawa H, Herlyn M. The essential role of fibroblasts in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-induced angiogenesis. Gastroenterology. 2008 Jul;134(7):1981-1993. Pubmedid: 18439605. Pmcid: PMC2562524.
  • Xie P, Williams DS, Atilla-Gokcumen GE, Milk L, Xiao M, Smalley KS, Herlyn M, Meggers E, Marmorstein R. Structure-based design of an organoruthenium phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase inhibitor reveals a switch governing lipid kinase potency and selectivity. ACS Chem Biol. 2008 May;3(5):305-316. Pubmedid: 18484710. Pmcid: PMC3618672.
  • Alfano RW, Leppla SH, Liu S, Bugge TH, Herlyn M, Smalley KS, Bromberg-White JL, Duesbery NS, Frankel AE. Cytotoxicity of the matrix metalloproteinase-activated anthrax lethal toxin is dependent on gelatinase expression and B-RAF status in human melanoma cells. Mol Cancer Ther. 2008 May;7(5):1218-1226. Pubmedid: 18483309. Pmcid: PMC2757055.
  • Tsai J, Lee JT, Wang W, Zhang J, Cho H, Mamo S, Bremer R, Gillette S, Kong J, Haass NK, Sproesser K, Li L, Smalley KS, Fong D, Zhu YL, Marimuthu A, Nguyen H, Lam B, Liu J, Cheung I, Rice J, Suzuki Y, Luu C, Settachatgul C, Shellooe R, Cantwell J, Kim SH, Schlessinger J, Zhang KY, West BL, Powell B, Habets G, Zhang C, Ibrahim PN, Hirth P, Artis DR, Herlyn M, Bollag G. Discovery of a selective inhibitor of oncogenic B-Raf kinase with potent antimelanoma activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Apr;105(8):3041-3046. Pubmedid: 18287029. Pmcid: PMC2268581.
  • Fong L, Jiang Y, Riley M, Liu X, Smalley K, Guttridge D, Farber J. Prevention of upper aerodigestive tract cancer in zinc-deficient rodents: inefficacy of genetic or pharmacological disruption of COX-2. Int J Cancer. 2008 Mar;122(5):978-989. Pubmedid: 17985342.
  • Haass NK, Sproesser K, Nguyen TK, Contractor R, Medina CA, Nathanson KL, Herlyn M, Smalley KS. The mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase inhibitor AZD6244 (ARRY-142886) induces growth arrest in melanoma cells and tumor regression when combined with docetaxel. Clin Cancer Res. 2008 Jan;14(1):230-239. Pubmedid: 18172275.
  • Smalley KS, Lioni M, Noma K, Haass NK, Herlyn M. In vitro three-dimensional tumor microenvironment models for anticancer drug discovery. Expert Opin Drug Discov. 2008 Jan;3(1):1-10. Pubmedid: 23480136.
  • Maksimoska J, Williams DS, Atilla-Gokcumen GE, Smalley KS, Carroll PJ, Webster RD, Filippakopoulos P, Knapp S, Herlyn M, Meggers E. Similar biological activities of two isostructural ruthenium and osmium complexes. Chemistry. 2008;14(16):4816-4822. Pubmedid: 18425743. Pmcid: PMC2753370.
  • Lopez-Bergami P, Huang C, Goydos JS, Yip D, Bar-Eli M, Herlyn M, Smalley KS, Mahale A, Eroshkin A, Aaronson S, Ronai Z. Rewired ERK-JNK signaling pathways in melanoma. Cancer Cell. 2007 May;11(5):447-460. Pubmedid: 17482134. Pmcid: PMC1978100.
  • Lioni M, Brafford P, Andl C, Rustgi A, El-Deiry W, Herlyn M, Smalley KS. Dysregulation of claudin-7 leads to loss of E-cadherin expression and the increased invasion of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells. Am J Pathol. 2007 Feb;170(2):709-721. Pubmedid: 17255337. Pmcid: PMC1851859.
  • Smalley KS, Contractor R, Haass NK, Lee JT, Nathanson KL, Medina CA, Flaherty KT, Herlyn M. Ki67 expression levels are a better marker of reduced melanoma growth following MEK inhibitor treatment than phospho-ERK levels. Br J Cancer. 2007 Feb;96(3):445-449. Pubmedid: 17245336. Pmcid: PMC2360037.
  • Smalley KS, Contractor R, Haass NK, Kulp AN, Atilla-Gokcumen GE, Williams DS, Bregman H, Flaherty KT, Soengas MS, Meggers E, Herlyn M. An organometallic protein kinase inhibitor pharmacologically activates p53 and induces apoptosis in human melanoma cells. Cancer Res. 2007 Jan;67(1):209-217. Pubmedid: 17210701.
  • Smalley KS, Flaherty KT. Is ERK activation a good biomarker for estradiol and tamoxifen effects?. Cancer Biol Ther. 2007 Jan;6(1):119-120. Pubmedid: 17264668.
  • King AJ, Patrick DR, Batorsky RS, Ho ML, Do HT, Zhang SY, Kumar R, Rusnak DW, Takle AK, Wilson DM, Hugger E, Wang L, Karreth F, Lougheed JC, Lee J, Chau D, Stout TJ, May EW, Rominger CM, Schaber MD, Luo L, Lakdawala AS, Adams JL, Contractor RG, Smalley KS, Herlyn M, Morrissey MM, Tuveson DA, Huang PS. Demonstration of a genetic therapeutic index for tumors expressing oncogenic BRAF by the kinase inhibitor SB-590885. Cancer Res. 2006 Dec;66(23):11100-11105. Pubmedid: 17145850.
  • Smalley K, Lioni M, Herlyn M. Life isn't flat: taking cancer biology to the next dimension. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2006 Sep;42(8-9):242-247. Pubmedid: 17163781.
  • Fang D, Leishear K, Nguyen T, Finko R, Cai K, Fukunaga M, Li L, Brafford P, Kulp A, Xu X, Smalley K, Herlyn M. Defining the conditions for the generation of melanocytes from human embryonic stem cells. Stem Cells. 2006 Jul;24(7):1668-1677. Pubmedid: 16574754.
  • Smalley KS, Haass NK, Brafford PA, Lioni M, Flaherty KT, Herlyn M. Multiple signaling pathways must be targeted to overcome drug resistance in cell lines derived from melanoma metastases. Mol Cancer Ther. 2006 May;5(5):1136-1144. Pubmedid: 16731745.
  • Liu ZJ, Xiao M, Balint K, Smalley KS, Brafford P, Qiu R, Pinnix CC, Li X, Herlyn M. Notch1 signaling promotes primary melanoma progression by activating mitogen-activated protein kinase/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathways and up-regulating N-cadherin expression. Cancer Res. 2006 Apr;66(8):4182-4190. Pubmedid: 16618740.
  • Smalley KS, Herlyn M. Towards the targeted therapy of melanoma. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2006 Apr;6(4):387-393. Pubmedid: 16613575.
  • Smalley K, Lioni M, Herlyn M. Targeting the stromal fibroblasts: a novel approach to melanoma therapy. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2005 Dec;5(6):1069-1078. Pubmedid: 16336098.
  • Smalley K, Brafford P, Herlyn M. Selective evolutionary pressure from the tissue microenvironment drives tumor progression. Semin Cancer Biol. 2005 Dec;15(6):451-459. Pubmedid: 16043361.
  • Smalley KS, Herlyn M. Targeting intracellular signaling pathways as a novel strategy in melanoma therapeutics. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Nov;1059:16-25. Pubmedid: 16382039.
  • Haass N, Smalley K, Li L, Herlyn M. Adhesion, migration and communication in melanocytes and melanoma. Pigment Cell Res. 2005 Jun;18(3):150-159. Pubmedid: 15892711.
  • Smalley KS, Brafford P, Haass NK, Brandner JM, Brown E, Herlyn M. Up-regulated expression of zonula occludens protein-1 in human melanoma associates with N-cadherin and contributes to invasion and adhesion. Am J Pathol. 2005 May;166(5):1541-1554. Pubmedid: 15855653. Pmcid: PMC1606406.
  • Meier F, Schittek B, Busch S, Garbe C, Smalley K, Satyamoorthy K, Li G, Herlyn M. The RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways present molecular targets for the effective treatment of advanced melanoma. Front Biosci. 2005;10:2986-3001. Pubmedid: 15970553.
  • Smalley KS, Herlyn M. Loitering with intent: new evidence for the role of BRAF mutations in the proliferation of melanocytic lesions. J Invest Dermatol. 2004 Oct;123(4):xvi-xvii. Pubmedid: 15373800.
  • Haass N, Smalley K, Herlyn M. The role of altered cell-cell communication in melanoma progression. J Mol Histol. 2004 Mar;35(3):309-318. Pubmedid: 15339050.
  • Smalley K, Herlyn M. The great escape: another way for melanoma to leave physiological control. J Invest Dermatol. 2003 Oct;121(4):xi-xii. Pubmedid: 14632176.
  • Smalley KS, Eisen TG. Farnesyl transferase inhibitor SCH66336 is cytostatic, pro-apoptotic and enhances chemosensitivity to cisplatin in melanoma cells. Int J Cancer. 2003 Jun;105(2):165-175. Pubmedid: 12673674.
  • Smalley KS. A pivotal role for ERK in the oncogenic behaviour of malignant melanoma?. Int J Cancer. 2003 May;104(5):527-532. Pubmedid: 12594806.
  • Smalley K, Eisen T. Differentiation of human melanoma cells through p38 MAP kinase is associated with decreased retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation and cell cycle arrest. Melanoma Res. 2002 Jun;12(3):187-192. Pubmedid: 12140374.
  • Smalley KS, Eisen TG. Farnesyl thiosalicylic acid inhibits the growth of melanoma cells through a combination of cytostatic and pro-apoptotic effects. Int J Cancer. 2002 Apr;98(4):514-522. Pubmedid: 11920610.
  • Stebbing J, Benson C, Eisen T, Pyle L, Smalley K, Bridle H, Mak I, Sapunar F, Ahern R, Gore M. The treatment of advanced renal cell cancer with high-dose oral thalidomide. Br J Cancer. 2001 Sep;85(7):953-958. Pubmedid: 11592764.
  • Smalley K, Koenig J, Feniuk W, Humphrey P. Ligand internalization and recycling by human recombinant somatostatin type 4 (h sst(4)) receptors expressed in CHO-K1 cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2001 Mar;132(5):1102-1110. Pubmedid: 11226141. Pmcid: PMC1572639.
  • Smalley K, Eisen T. The involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in the alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH)-induced melanogenic and anti-proliferative effects in B16 murine melanoma cells. Febs Lett. 2000 Jul;476(3):198-202. Pubmedid: 10913613.
  • Smalley KS, Feniuk W, Sellers LA, Humphrey PP. The pivotal role of phosphoinositide-3 kinase in the human somatostatin sst(4) receptor-mediated stimulation of p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular acidification. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Sep;263(1):239-243. Pubmedid: 10486283.
  • Smalley K, Feniuk W, Humphrey P. Differential agonist activity of somatostatin and L-362855 at human recombinant sst4 receptors. Br J Pharmacol. 1998 Oct;125(4):833-841. Pubmedid: 9831922 .
  • Kudchadkar R, Paraiso KH, Smalley KS. Targeting mutant BRAF in melanoma: current status and future development of combination therapy strategies. Cancer J. 18(2):124-131. Pubmedid: 22453012. Pmcid: PMC3314865.
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