Gary W. Litman, PhD

Where You Are:
Gary W. Litman, PhD

"Major lessons can be learned about the immune system and its layered complexity from studying species that occupy distant evolutionary relations to humans."

Office  (727) 553-3601

Education And Training
  • PhD, University of Minnesota, 1972 - Microbiology
  • BA, University of Minnesota, 1967 - Microbiology


Interests in Dr. Litman's laboratory are centered on the genetics and function of diversified innate immune receptors and alternative mediators of adaptive immunity. The novel immune-type receptors (NITRs), which were identified originally in pufferfish, a compact genome model system, as well as in zebrafish, an important developmental model system, represent one such multigene family. In terms of both their polymorphic and polygenic characters, NITRs possess diversified immunoglobulin-type variable (V) regions but otherwise resemble the activating/inhibitory killer cell immunoglobulin-type receptors (KIRs), which effect natural killer function in man. Present studies are focused on characterizing the genetic diversity in NITRs as well as their ligand binding specificities; an NITR expressed by an NK cell line exhibits highly specific reactivity for a determinant on allogeneic target cells. The functional relationship of NITRs to KIRs and other immune-type receptors is not clear, nor is the relation of NITRs to several other large families of activating/inhibitory immunoglobulin-type receptors that have been identified in zebrafish as well as in cartilaginous fish.

Novel cloning strategies have been developed to identify immunoglobulin-type V regions in jawless vertebrates and in the more phylogenetically ancient protochordates, which lack immunoglobulins, T-cell antigen receptors, and MHC Class I and II and other features of conventional adaptive immune systems. Studies in this latter model have identified a particularly extensive family of receptors (VCBPs) that encode two tandem V regions and a chitin-binding tail. The solved crystal structure of one such VCBP localizes the primary site of genetic variation to a different surface of the V region fold from that used to form the antigen-combining site in immunoglobulin and T cell antigen receptors. VCBPs are expressed in cells lining the lumen of the gut and exhibit extremely high levels of interindividual variation at the genomic level. Ongoing efforts are focused on identifying the genetic mechanisms that diversify these receptors at the germline and somatic levels and the ligands recognized by these receptors. The long-term objective of these investigations is to understand relationships between the genetics of sequence variation and receptor function.

  • Dishaw LJ, Cannon JP, Litman GW, Parker W. Immune-directed support of rich microbial communities in the gut has ancient roots. Dev Comp Immunol. 2014 Nov;47(1):36-51. Pubmedid: 24984114.
  • Boudinot P, Zou J, Ota T, Buonocore F, Scapigliati G, Canapa A, Cannon J, Litman G, Hansen JD. A tetrapod-like repertoire of innate immune receptors and effectors for coelacanths. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2014 Sep;322(6):415-437. Pubmedid: 24482296.
  • Rodríguez-Nunez I, Wcisel DJ, Litman GW, Yoder JA. Multigene families of immunoglobulin domain-containing innate immune receptors in zebrafish: Deciphering the differences. Dev Comp Immunol. 2014 Sep;46(1):24-34. Pubmedid: 24548770.
  • Kortum AN, Rodriguez-Nunez I, Yang J, Shim J, Runft D, O'Driscoll ML, Haire RN, Cannon JP, Turner PM, Litman RT, Kim CH, Neely MN, Litman GW, Yoder JA. Differential expression and ligand binding indicate alternative functions for zebrafish polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) and a family of pIgR-like (PIGRL) proteins. Immunogenetics. 2014 Apr;66(4):267-279. Pubmedid: 24469064. Pmcid: PMC3962068.
  • Litman GW, Mauri C. Editorial overview: Lymphocyte development. Curr Opin Immunol. 2014 Apr;27C:v-vi. Pubmedid: 24629726.
  • Dishaw LJ, Flores-Torres J, Lax S, Gemayel K, Leigh B, Melillo D, Mueller MG, Natale L, Zucchetti I, De Santis R, Pinto MR, Litman GW, Gilbert JA. The Gut of Geographically Disparate Ciona intestinalis Harbors a Core Microbiota. PLoS One. 2014;9(4):e93386. Pubmedid: 24695540.
  • Liberti A, Melillo D, Zucchetti I, Natale L, Dishaw LJ, Litman GW, De Santis R, Pinto MR. Expression of Ciona intestinalis Variable Region-Containing Chitin-Binding Proteins during Development of the Gastrointestinal Tract and Their Role in Host-Microbe Interactions. PLoS One. 2014;9(5):e94984. Pubmedid: 24788831.
  • Litman GW, Dishaw LJ. Histocompatibility: clarifying fusion confusion. Curr Biol. 2013 Oct;23(20):R934-R935. Pubmedid: 24156816.
  • Amemiya CT, Alföldi J, Lee AP, Fan S, Philippe H, Maccallum I, Braasch I, Manousaki T, Schneider I, Rohner N, Organ C, Chalopin D, Smith JJ, Robinson M, Dorrington RA, Gerdol M, Aken B, Biscotti MA, Barucca M, Baurain D, Berlin AM, Blatch GL, Buonocore F, Burmester T, Campbell MS, Canapa A, Cannon JP, Christoffels A, De Moro G, Edkins AL, Fan L, Fausto AM, Feiner N, Forconi M, Gamieldien J, Gnerre S, Gnirke A, Goldstone JV, Haerty W, Hahn ME, Hesse U, Hoffmann S, Johnson J, Karchner SI, Kuraku S, Lara M, Levin JZ, Litman GW, Mauceli E, Miyake T, Mueller MG, Nelson DR, Nitsche A, Olmo E, Ota T, Pallavicini A, Panji S, Picone B, Ponting CP, Prohaska SJ, Przybylski D, Saha NR, Ravi V, Ribeiro FJ, Sauka-Spengler T, Scapigliati G, Searle SM, Sharpe T, Simakov O, Stadler PF, Stegeman JJ, Sumiyama K, Tabbaa D, Tafer H, Turner-Maier J, van Heusden P, White S, Williams L, Yandell M, Brinkmann H, Volff JN, Tabin CJ, Shubin N, Schartl M, Jaffe DB, Postlethwait JH, Venkatesh B, Di Palma F, Lander ES, Meyer A, Lindblad-Toh K. The African coelacanth genome provides insights into tetrapod evolution. Nature. 2013 Apr;496(7445):311-316. Pubmedid: 23598338. Pmcid: PMC3633110.
  • Dishaw LJ, Litman GW. Changing views of the evolution of immunity. Front Immunol. 2013;4:122. Pubmedid: 23734152. Pmcid: PMC3659336.
  • Shah RN, Rodriguez-Nunez I, Eason DD, Haire RN, Bertrand JY, Wittamer V, Traver D, Nordone SK, Litman GW, Yoder JA. Development and characterization of anti-nitr9 antibodies. Adv Hematol. 2012 Oct;2012:596925. Pubmedid: 23049557. Pmcid: PMC3463160.
  • Haire RN, Cannon JP, O'Driscoll ML, Ostrov DA, Mueller MG, Turner PM, Litman RT, Litman GW, Yoder JA. Genomic and functional characterization of the diverse immunoglobulin domain-containing protein (DICP) family. Genomics. 2012 May;99(5):282-291. Pubmedid: 22386706. Pmcid: PMC3351558.
  • Dishaw LJ, Haire RN, Litman GW. The amphioxus genome provides unique insight into the evolution of immunity. Brief Funct Genomics. 2012 Mar;11(2):167-176. Pubmedid: 22402506. Pmcid: PMC3310213.
  • Cannon JP, O'Driscoll M, Litman GW. Specific lipid recognition is a general feature of CD300 and TREM molecules. Immunogenetics. 2012 Jan;64(1):39-47. Pubmedid: 21800138.
  • Dishaw LJ, Flores-Torres JA, Mueller MG, Karrer CR, Skapura DP, Melillo D, Zucchetti I, De Santis R, Pinto MR, Litman GW. A Basal chordate model for studies of gut microbial immune interactions. Front Immunol. 2012;3:96. Pubmedid: 22563328. Pmcid: PMC3342567.
  • Dishaw LJ, Giacomelli S, Melillo D, Zucchetti I, Haire RN, Natale L, Russo NA, De Santis R, Litman GW, Pinto MR. A role for variable region-containing chitin-binding proteins (VCBPs) in host gut-bacteria interactions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Oct;108(40):16747-16752. Pubmedid: 21930927. Pmcid: PMC3189038.
  • Yoder JA, Litman GW. The phylogenetic origins of natural killer receptors and recognition: relationships, possibilities, and realities. Immunogenetics. 2011 Mar;63(3):123-141. Pubmedid: 21191578. Pmcid: PMC3691731.
  • Dishaw LJ, Mueller MG, Haire RN, Litman GW. Transfection-based genomic readout for identifying rare transcriptional splice variants. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;748:243-254. Pubmedid: 21701979.
  • Cannon JP, O'Driscoll M, Litman GW. Construction, expression, and purification of chimeric protein reagents based on immunoglobulin fc regions. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;748:51-67. Pubmedid: 21701966.
  • Dishaw LJ, Ota T, Mueller MG, Cannon JP, Haire RN, Gwatney NR, Litman RT, Litman GW. The basis for haplotype complexity in VCBPs, an immune-type receptor in amphioxus. Immunogenetics. 2010 Sep;62(9):623-631. Pubmedid: 20652563. Pmcid: PMC3707128.
  • Litman GW, Rast JP, Fugmann SD. The origins of vertebrate adaptive immunity. Nat Rev Immunol. 2010 Aug;10(8):543-553. Pubmedid: 20651744. Pmcid: PMC2919748.
  • Cannon JP, Dishaw LJ, Haire RN, Litman RT, Ostrov DA, Litman GW. Recognition of additional roles for immunoglobulin domains in immune function. Semin Immunol. 2010 Mar;22(1):17-24. Pubmedid: 20004115. Pmcid: PMC2823954.
  • Rast J, Litman G. Evolution of innate and adaptive immune recognition structures. Semin Immunol. 2010 Feb;22(1):1-2. Pubmedid: 20138544.
  • Yoder JA, Turner PM, Wright PD, Wittamer V, Bertrand JY, Traver D, Litman GW. Developmental and tissue-specific expression of NITRs. Immunogenetics. 2010 Feb;62(2):117-122. Pubmedid: 20012603. Pmcid: PMC2814043.
  • Litman GW, Cannon JP. Immunology: Immunity's ancient arms. Nature. 2009 Jun;459(7248):784-786. Pubmedid: 19516328. Pmcid: PMC3689211.
  • Jima DD, Shah RN, Orcutt TM, Joshi D, Law JM, Litman GW, Trede NS, Yoder JA. Enhanced transcription of complement and coagulation genes in the absence of adaptive immunity. Mol Immunol. 2009 Jun;46(7):1505-1516. Pubmedid: 19200601. Pmcid: PMC2735268.
  • Dishaw LJ, Litman GW. Invertebrate allorecognition: the origins of histocompatibility. Curr Biol. 2009 Apr;19(7):R286-R288. Pubmedid: 19368870. Pmcid: PMC3699862.
  • Dishaw LJ, Mueller MG, Gwatney N, Cannon JP, Haire RN, Litman RT, Amemiya CT, Ota T, Rowen L, Glusman G, Litman GW. Genomic complexity of the variable region-containing chitin-binding proteins in amphioxus. BMC Genet. 2009 Feb;9:78. Pubmedid: 19046437. Pmcid: PMC2632668.
  • Zhang Q, Zmasek CM, Dishaw LJ, Mueller MG, Ye Y, Litman GW, Godzik A. Novel genes dramatically alter regulatory network topology in amphioxus. Genome Biol. 2008 Dec;9(8):R123. Pubmedid: 18680598. Pmcid: PMC2575513.
  • Cannon JP, Haire RN, Magis AT, Eason DD, Winfrey KN, Hernandez Prada JA, Bailey KM, Jakoncic J, Litman GW, Ostrov DA. A bony fish immunological receptor of the NITR multigene family mediates allogeneic recognition. Immunity. 2008 Nov;29(2):228-237. Pubmedid: 18674935. Pmcid: PMC2603606.
  • Desai S, Heffelfinger AK, Orcutt TM, Litman GW, Yoder JA. The medaka novel immune-type receptor (NITR) gene clusters reveal an extraordinary degree of divergence in variable domains. BMC Evol Biol. 2008 Sep;8:177. Pubmedid: 18565225. Pmcid: PMC2442602.
  • Holland LZ, Albalat R, Azumi K, Benito-Gutiérrez E, Blow MJ, Bronner-Fraser M, Brunet F, Butts T, Candiani S, Dishaw LJ, Ferrier DE, Garcia-Fernàndez J, Gibson-Brown JJ, Gissi C, Godzik A, Hallböök F, Hirose D, Hosomichi K, Ikuta T, Inoko H, Kasahara M, Kasamatsu J, Kawashima T, Kimura A, Kobayashi M, Kozmik Z, Kubokawa K, Laudet V, Litman GW, McHardy AC, Meulemans D, Nonaka M, Olinski RP, Pancer Z, Pennacchio LA, Pestarino M, Rast JP, Rigoutsos I, Robinson-Rechavi M, Roch G, Saiga H, Sasakura Y, Satake M, Satou Y, Schubert M, Sherwood N, Shiina T, Takatori N, Tello J, Vopalensky P, Wada S, Xu A, Ye Y, Yoshida K, Yoshizaki F, Yu JK, Zhang Q, Zmasek CM, de Jong PJ, Osoegawa K, Putnam NH, Rokhsar DS, Satoh N, Holland PW. The amphioxus genome illuminates vertebrate origins and cephalochordate biology. Genome Res. 2008 Sep;18(7):1100-1111. Pubmedid: 18562680. Pmcid: PMC2493399.
  • Yoder JA, Cannon JP, Litman RT, Murphy C, Freeman JL, Litman GW. Evidence for a transposition event in a second NITR gene cluster in zebrafish. Immunogenetics. 2008 Sep;60(5):257-265. Pubmedid: 18330557. Pmcid: PMC2911966.
  • Wei S, Zhou JM, Chen X, Shah RN, Liu J, Orcutt TM, Traver D, Djeu JY, Litman GW, Yoder JA. The zebrafish activating immune receptor Nitr9 signals via Dap12. Immunogenetics. 2007 Dec;59(10):813-821. Pubmedid: 17891481. Pmcid: PMC3709248.
  • Litman GW, Dishaw LJ, Cannon JP, Haire RN, Rast JP. Alternative mechanisms of immune receptor diversity. Curr Opin Immunol. 2007 Dec;19(5):526-534. Pubmedid: 17703932. Pmcid: PMC2065753.
  • Ostrov DA, Hernández Prada JA, Haire RN, Cannon JP, Magis AT, Bailey K, Litman GW. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of a novel immune-type receptor from Ictalurus punctatus and phasing by selenium anomalous dispersion methods. Acta Crytstallogr F. 2007 Dec;63(Pt 12):1035-1037. Pubmedid: 18084086. Pmcid: PMC2344108.
  • Yoder JA, Orcutt TM, Traver D, Litman GW. Structural characteristics of zebrafish orthologs of adaptor molecules that associate with transmembrane immune receptors. Gene. 2007 Oct;401(1-2):154-164. Pubmedid: 17719728. Pmcid: PMC2049010.
  • Litman GW, Cooper MD. Why study the evolution of immunity?. Nat Immunol. 2007 Jun;8(6):547-548. Pubmedid: 17514203. Pmcid: PMC3684968.
  • Litman GW, Cannon JP, Dishaw LJ, Haire RN, Eason DD, Yoder JA, Prada JH, Ostrov DA. Immunoglobulin variable regions in molecules exhibiting characteristics of innate and adaptive immune receptors. Immunol Res. 2007;38(1-3):294-304. Pubmedid: 17917037. Pmcid: PMC3690489.
  • Rast JP, Smith LC, Loza-Coll M, Hibino T, Litman GW. Genomic insights into the immune system of the sea urchin. Science. 2006 Nov;314(5801):952-956. Pubmedid: 17095692. Pmcid: PMC3707132.
  • Cannon JP, Haire RN, Mueller MG, Litman RT, Eason DD, Tinnemore D, Amemiya CT, Ota T, Litman GW. Ancient divergence of a complex family of immune-type receptor genes. Immunogenetics. 2006 Aug;58(5-6):362-373. Pubmedid: 16738934. Pmcid: PMC3701310.
  • Litman GW. How Botryllus chooses to fuse. Immunity. 2006 Jul;25(1):13-15. Pubmedid: 16860752. Pmcid: PMC3698574.
  • Litman GW, Cannon JP, Dishaw LJ. Reconstructing immune phylogeny: new perspectives. Nat Rev Immunol. 2005 Nov;5(11):866-879. Pubmedid: 16261174. Pmcid: PMC3683834.
  • Litman G. Histocompatibility: colonial match and mismatch. Nature. 2005 Nov;438(7067):437-439. Pubmedid: 16306979.
  • Cannon JP, Haire RN, Pancer Z, Mueller MG, Skapura D, Cooper MD, Litman GW. Variable domains and a VpreB-like molecule are present in a jawless vertebrate. Immunogenetics. 2005 May;56(12):924-929. Pubmedid: 15650874. Pmcid: PMC3689217.
  • Hernández Prada JA, Haire RN, Cannon JP, Litman GW, Ostrov DA. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of VCBP3 from Branchiostoma floridae. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2005 May;60(Pt 11):2022-2024. Pubmedid: 15502315.
  • Litman GW, Cannon JP, Rast JP. New insights into alternative mechanisms of immune receptor diversification. Adv Immunol. 2005;87:209-236. Pubmedid: 16102575.
  • Litman G. Investigator profile. An interview with Gary Litman, Ph.D. Interview by Vicki Glaser. Zebrafish. 2005;2(2):77-85. Pubmedid: 18248168.
  • Yoder JA, Litman RT, Mueller MG, Desai S, Dobrinski KP, Montgomery JS, Buzzeo MP, Ota T, Amemiya CT, Trede NS, Wei S, Djeu JY, Humphray S, Jekosch K, Hernandez Prada JA, Ostrov DA, Litman GW. Resolution of the novel immune-type receptor gene cluster in zebrafish. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Dec;101(44):15706-15711. Pubmedid: 15496470. Pmcid: PMC524843.
  • Anderson M, Pant R, Miracle A, Sun X, Luer C, Walsh C, Telfer J, Litman GW, Rothenberg E. Evolutionary origins of lymphocytes: ensembles of T cell and B cell transcriptional regulators in a cartilaginous fish. J Immunol. 2004;172(10):5851-5860. Pubmedid: 15128764.
  • van den Berg T, Yoder J, Litman G. On the origins of adaptive immunity: innate immune receptors join the tale. Trends Immunol. 2004;25(1):11-16. Pubmedid: 14698279.
  • Cannon J, Haire R, Rast J, Litman G. The phylogenetic origins of the antigen-binding receptors and somatic diversification mechanisms. Immunol Rev. 2004;200:12-22. Pubmedid: 15242392.
  • Eason D, Litman R, Luer C, Kerr W, Litman G. Expression of individual immunoglobulin genes occurs in an unusual system consisting of multiple independent loci. Eur J Immunol. 2004;34(9):2551-2558. Pubmedid: 15307187.
  • Eason D, Cannon J, Haire R, Rast J, Ostrov D, Litman G. Mechanisms of antigen receptor evolution. Semin Immunol. 2004;16(4):215-226. Pubmedid: 15522620.
  • Bartl S, Miracle AL, Rumfelt LL, Kepler TB, Mochon E, Litman GW, Flajnik MF. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferases from elasmobranchs reveal structural conservation within vertebrates. Immunogenetics. 2003 Dec;55(9):594-604. Pubmedid: 14579105.
  • Ota T, Rast JP, Litman GW, Amemiya CT. Lineage-restricted retention of a primitive immunoglobulin heavy chain isotype within the Dipnoi reveals an evolutionary paradox. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Mar;100(5):2501-2506. Pubmedid: 12606718. Pmcid: PMC151370.
  • Traver D, Herbomel P, Patton EE, Murphey RD, Yoder JA, Litman GW, Catic A, Amemiya CT, Zon LI, Trede NS. The zebrafish as a model organism to study development of the immune system. Adv Immunol. 2003;81:253-330. Pubmedid: 14711058.
  • Eason D, Litman G. Haplotype exclusion: the unique case presented by multiple immunoglobulin gene loci in cartilaginous fish. Semin Immunol. 2002 Jun;14(3):145-152. Pubmedid: 12160642.
  • Cannon J, Haire R, Litman G. Identification of diversified genes that contain immunoglobulin-like variable regions in a protochordate. Nat Immunol. 2002;3(12):1200-1207. Pubmedid: 12415263.
  • Haire R, Kitzan M, Turpen J, Litman G. Structure and diversity of T-lymphocyte antigen receptors alpha and gamma in Xenopus. Immunogenetics. 2002;54(6):431-438. Pubmedid: 12242593.
  • Yoder JA, Hawke NA, Eason DD, Mueller MG, Davids BJ, Litman GW. BIVM, a novel gene widely distributed among deuterostomes, shares a core sequence with an unusual gene in Giardia lamblia. Genomics. 2002;79(6):750-755. Pubmedid: 12036287.
  • Yoder, Mueller M, Ota T, Nichols K, Ristow S, Thorgaard G, Litman G. Cloning novel immune-type inhibitory receptors from the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Immunogenetics. 2002;54(9):662-670. Pubmedid: 12466899.
  • Yoder JA, Nielsen ME, Amemiya CT, Litma GW. Zebrafish as an immunological model system. Microbes Infect. 2002;4(14):1469-1478. Pubmedid: 12475637.
  • Litman GW, Hawke NA, Yoder JA. Novel immune-type receptor genes. Immunol Rev. 2001 Jun;181:250-259. Pubmedid: 11513146.
  • Yoder JA, Mueller MG, Wei S, Corliss BC, Prather DM, Willis T, Litman RT, Djeu JY, Litman GW. Immune-type receptor genes in zebrafish share genetic and functional properties with genes encoded by the mammalian leukocyte receptor cluster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Jun;98(12):6771-6776. Pubmedid: 11381126. Pmcid: PMC34428.
  • Anderson MK, Sun X, Miracle AL, Litman GW, Rothenberg EV. Evolution of hematopoiesis: Three members of the PU.1 transcription factor family in a cartilaginous fish, Raja eglanteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Jan;98(2):553-558. Pubmedid: 11149949. Pmcid: PMC14625.
  • Hawke N, Yoder J, Haire R, Mueller M, Litman R, Miracle A, Stuge T, Shen L, Miller N, Litman G. Extraordinary variation in a diversified family of immune-type receptor genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:13832-13857. Pubmedid: 11698645.
  • Yoder J, Hawke N, Haire R, Mueller M, Litman R, Miracle A, Stuge T, Miller N, Litman G, Shen L. Extraordinary variation in a diversified family of immune-type receptor genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98(24):13832-13837. Pubmedid: 11698645.
  • Miracle AL, Anderson MK, Litman RT, Walsh CJ, Luer CA, Rothenberg EV, Litman GW. Complex expression patterns of lymphocyte-specific genes during the development of cartilaginous fish implicate unique lymphoid tissues in generating an immune repertoire. Int Immunol. 2001;13(4):567-580. Pubmedid: 11282996.
  • Yoder JA, Litman GW. The zebrafish fth1, slc3a2, men1, pc, fgf3 and cycd1 genes define two regions of conserved synteny between linkage group 7 and human chromosome 11q13. Gene. 2000 Dec;261(2):235-242. Pubmedid: 11167010.
  • Haire R, Miracle A, Rast J, Litman G. Members of the Ikaros gene family are present in early representative vertebrates. J Immunol. 2000;165(1):306-312. Pubmedid: 10861066.
  • Yoder JA, Litman GW. Immune-type diversity in the absence of somatic rearrangement. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2000;248:271-282. Pubmedid: 10793482.
  • Haire R, Rast J, Litman R, Litman G. Characterization of three isotypes of immunoglobulin light chains and T-cell antigen receptor alpha in zebrafish. Immunogenetics. 2000;51(11):915-923. Pubmedid: 11003385.
  • Icard-Liepkalns C, Haire RN, Strong SJ, Litman GW. Cloning of a cDNA encoding a Pim1 homologue in zebrafish, Danio rerio. Immunogenetics. 1999 Apr;49(4):351-353. Pubmedid: 10079300.
  • Strong S, Mueller M, Litman R, Hawke N, Haire R, Miracle A, Rast J, Amemiya C, Litman G. A novel multigene family encodes diversified variable regions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96(26):15080-15085. Pubmedid: 10611341.
  • Anderson M, Strong S, Litman R, Luer C, Amemiya C, Rast J, Litman G. A long form of the skate IgX gene exhibits a striking resemblance to the new shark IgW and IgNARC genes. Immunogenetics. 1999;49(1):56-67. Pubmedid: 9811969.
  • Yoder J, Haire R, Litman G. Cloning of two zebrafish cDNAs that shares domains with the MHC class II-associated invariant chain. Immunogenetics. 1999;50(1/2):84-88.
  • Litman GW, Anderson MK, Rast JP. Evolution of antigen binding receptors. Annu Rev Immunol. 1999;17:109-147. Pubmedid: 10358755.
  • Hawke N, Yoder J, Litman G. Expanding our understanding of immunoglobulin, T-cell antigen receptor, and novel immune-type receptor genes: a subset of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily. Immunogenetics. 1999;50(3-4):124-133.
  • Rast J, Litman G. Towards understanding the evolutionary origins and early diversification of rearranging antigen receptors. Immunol Rev. 1998;166:79-86. Pubmedid: 9914904.
  • Haire R, Strong S, Litman G. Tec-family non-receptor tyrosine kinase expressed in Zebrafish kidney. Immunogenetics. 1998;47:336-337. Pubmedid: 9472071.
  • Rast JP, Amemiya CT, Litman RT, Strong SJ, Litman GW. Distinct patterns of IgH structure and organization in a divergent lineage of chrondrichthyan fishes. Immunogenetics. 1998;47(3):234-245. Pubmedid: 9435342.
  • Kornfeld SJ, Haire RN, Strong SJ, Brigino EN, Tang H, Sung SS, Litman GW. Extreme variation in X-linked agammaglobulinemia phenotype in a three-generation family. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1997 Nov;100(5):702-706. Pubmedid: 9389302.
  • Haire RN, Ohta Y, Strong SJ, Litman RT, Liu Y, Prchal JT, Cooper MD, Litman GW. Unusual patterns of exon skipping in Bruton tyrosine kinase are associated with mutations involving the intron 17 3' splice site. Am J Hum Genet. 1997 Apr;60(4):798-807. Pubmedid: 9106525. Pmcid: PMC1712487.
  • Rast JP, Anderson MK, Strong SJ, Litman Rt, Litman Gw, Luer C. alpha, beta, gamma, and delta T cell antigen receptor genes arose early in vertebrate phylogeny. Immunity. 1997 Jan;6(1):1-11. Pubmedid: 9052832.
  • Hawke N, Strong S, Haire R, Litman G. A vector for positive selection of in-frame genetic sequences. Biotechniques. 1997;23:619-621. Pubmedid: 9343675.
  • Haire RN, Strong SJ, Litman GW. Identification and characterization of a homologue of Bruton's tyrosine kinase, a Tec kinase involved in B-cell development, in a modern representative of a phylogenetically ancient vertebrate. Immunogenetics. 1997;46(4):349-351. Pubmedid: 9218539.
  • Strong SJ, Ohta Y, Litman G, Amemiya C. Marked improvement of PAC and BAC cloning is achieved using electroelution of pulsed-field gel-separated partial digests of genomic DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997;3959-3961. Pubmedid: 9380525.
  • Kornfeld SJ, Haire RN, Litman GW. Primary immunodeficiency disease presenting in midlife. Jama. 1996 Dec;276(24):1953-1954. Pubmedid: 8971060.
  • Vihinen M, Brooimans RA, Kwan SP, Lehväslaiho H, Litman GW, Ochs HD, Resnick I, Schwaber JH, Vorĕchovsky I, Smith CI. BTKbase: XLA-mutation registry. Immunol Today. 1996 Nov;17(11):502-506. Pubmedid: 8961625.
  • Litman GW. Sharks and the origins of vertebrate immunity. Sci Am. 1996 Nov;275(5):67-71. Pubmedid: 8875809.
  • Kornfeld SJ, Haire RN, Strong SJ, Tang H, Sung SS, Fu SM, Litman GW. A novel mutation (Cys145-->Stop) in Bruton's tyrosine kinase is associated with newly diagnosed X-linked agammaglobulinemia in a 51-year-old male. Mol Med. 1996 Sep;2(5):619-623. Pubmedid: 8898377. Pmcid: PMC2230197.
  • Ohta Y, Haire RN, Amemiya CT, Litman RT, Träger T, Riess O, Litman GW. Human Txk: genomic organization, structure and contiguous physical linkage with the Tec gene. Oncogene. 1996 Feb;12(4):937-942. Pubmedid: 8632917.
  • Okumura M, Matthew R, Robb B, Litman G, Bork P, Thomas M. Comparison of CD45 extracellular domain sequences from divergent vertebrate species suggests the conversation of 3 fibronectin type III domains. J Immunol. 1996;157:1569-1575. Pubmedid: 8759740.
  • Litman G. Discordant phenotype in siblings with X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Am J Hum Genet. 1996;58:477-483.
  • Hawke N, Rast J, Litman G. Extensive diversity of transcribed TCR-beta in phylogenetically primitive vertebrate. J Immunol. 1996;156:2458-2464. Pubmedid: 8786305.
  • Litman G, Rast J. The organization and structure of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genes in the most phylogenetically distant jawed vertebrates: evolutionary implications. Res Immunol. 1996;226-233. Pubmedid: 8844900.
  • Haire R, Ota T, Rast J, Litman R, Chan F, Zon L, Litman G. A third Ig light chain gene isotype in xenopus laevis consists of six distinct Vl families and is related to mammalian lamda genes. J Immunol. 1996;157:1544-1550. Pubmedid: 8759737.
  • Vihinen M, Cooper MD, de Saint Basile G, Fischer A, Good RA, Hendriks RW, Kinnon C, Kwan SP, Litman GW, Notarangelo LD. BTKbase: a database of XLA-causing mutations. International Study Group. Immunol Today. 1995 Oct;16(10):460-465. Pubmedid: 7576047.
  • de la Morena M, Haire RN, Ohta Y, Nelson RP, Litman RT, Day NK, Good RA, Litman GW. Predominance of sterile immunoglobulin transcripts in a female phenotypically resembling Bruton's agammaglobulinemia. Eur J Immunol. 1995 Mar;25(3):809-815. Pubmedid: 7705412.
  • Haire R, Litman G. The murine form of TXK, a novel TEC kinase expressed in thymus, maps to chromosome 5. Mamm Genome. 1995;6:476-480. Pubmedid: 7579892.
  • Rast J, Hawke N, Anderson M, Litman G. T-cell receptors and related variable region containing genes from non-tetrapod jawed vertebrates. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1995;139-150. Pubmedid: noPMID.
  • Amemiya C, Ota T, Rast J, Zon L, Litman G. Organization and evolution of immunoglobulin genes, and identification of genes involved in regulation and ontogeny of the immune system. Current Topics On Molecular Evolution. 1995;159-168. Pubmedid: noPMID.
  • Litman G. Book review: invertebrate immunology. Science. 1995;270:650-656.
  • Rast J, Haire R, Litman R, Pross S, Litman G. Identification and characterization of T-cell antigen receptor related genes in phylogenetically diverse vertebrate species. Immunogenetics. 1995;42:204-212. Pubmedid: 7642232.
  • Anderson M, Shamblott M, Litman R, Litman G. The generation of immunoglobulin light chain gene diversity in Raja erinacea is not associated with somatic rearrangement, an exception to a central paradigm of B cell immunity. J Exp Med. 1995;182:109-119. Pubmedid: 7790811.
  • Ota T, Margittai M, Rast J, Litman G, Amemiya C. Studies of the early evolution of immunoglobulin genes. Current Topics On Molecular Evolution. 1995;151-158. Pubmedid: noPMID.
  • Kornfeld S, Kratz J, Haire R, Litman G, Good R. X-linked agammaglobulinemia presenting as transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1995;95:915-917. Pubmedid: 7722175.
  • Kornfeld SJ, Good RA, Litman GW. Atypical X-linked agammaglobulinemia. N Engl J Med. 1994 Oct;331(14):949-951. Pubmedid: 8078565.
  • Ohta Y, Haire RN, Litman RT, Fu SM, Nelson RP, Kratz J, Kornfeld SJ, de la Morena M, Good RA, Litman GW. Genomic organization and structure of Bruton agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase: localization of mutations associated with varied clinical presentations and course in X chromosome-linked agammaglobulinemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Sep;91(19):9062-9066. Pubmedid: 8090769. Pmcid: PMC44747.
  • Rast JP, Litman GW. T-cell receptor gene homologs are present in the most primitive jawed vertebrates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Sep;91(20):9248-9252. Pubmedid: 7937749. Pmcid: PMC44789.
  • Haire R, Ohta Y, Lewis J, Fu S, Kroisel P, Litman G. TXK, a novel human tyrosine kinase expressed in T cells shares sequence identity with Tec family kinases and maps to 4p12. Hum Mol Genet. 1994;3:897-901.
  • Anderson M, Amemiya C, Luer C, Litman R, Rast J, Niimura Y, Litman G. Complete genomic sequence and patterns of transcription of a member of an unusual family of closely related, chromosomally dispersed immunoglobulin gene clusters in Raja. Int Immunol. 1994;6:1661-1670.
  • Rast J, Litman G. T-cell receptor gene homologs are present in the most primitive jawed vertebrates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:9248-9252.
  • Ohta Y, Haire R, Litman R, Fu S, Nelson R, Kratz J, Kornfeld S, Good R, Litman G. Genomic organization and structure of the Bruton's tyrosine kinase: location of mutations associated with varied clinical presentations and course in X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:9062-9066.
  • Kornfeld S, Good R, Litman G. Atypical X-linked agammaglobulinemia. N Engl J Med. 1994;331:949-950.
  • Rast J, Anderson M, Ota T, Litman R, Shamblott M, Litman G. Immunoglobulin light chain class multiplicity and alternative organizational forms in early vertebrate phylogeny. Immunogenetics. 1994;40:83-99.
  • Hinds-Frey KR, Nishikata H, Litman RT, Litman GW. Somatic variation precedes extensive diversification of germline sequences and combinatorial joining in the evolution of immunoglobulin heavy chain diversity. J Exp Med. 1993 Sep;178(3):815-824. Pubmedid: 8350055. Pmcid: PMC2191167.
  • Amemiya CT, Ohta Y, Litman RT, Rast JP, Haire RN, Litman GW. VH gene organization in a relict species, the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae: evolutionary implications. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Jul;90(14):6661-6665. Pubmedid: 8341683. Pmcid: PMC46992.
  • Litman G, Rast J, Shamblott M, Haire R, Hulst M, Roess W, Litman R, Hinds-Frey K, Zilch A, Amemiya C. Phylogenetic diversification of immunoglobulin genes and the antibody repertoire. Mol Biol Evol. 1993;10:60-72.
  • Amemiya C, Ohta Y, Litmam R, Rast J, Haire R, Litman G. Unique V(H) gene organization a living fossil, the coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae: evolutionary implications. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:6661-6665.
  • Hinds-Frey K, Nishikata H, Litman R, Litman G. Somatic variation precedes extensive diversification of germline sequences and combinatorial joining in the evolution of immunoglobulin heavy chain diversity. J Exp Med. 1993;178:815-824.
  • Haire R, Buell R, Litman R, Ohta Y, Honjo T, Matsuda F, De La Morena M, Carro J, Good R, Litman G. Diversification, not utilization of the immunoglobulin Vh gene repertoire is restricted in Di George syndrome. J Exp Med. 1993;178:825-834.
  • Litman GW, Haire RN, Hinds KR, Amemiya CT, Rast JP, Hulst M. Evolutionary development of the B-cell repertoire. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1992 May;651:360-368. Pubmedid: 1599131.
  • Haire RN, Ohta Y, Litman RT, Amemiya CT, Litman GW. The genomic organization of immunoglobulin VH genes in Xenopus laevis shows evidence for interspersion of families. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991 Jun;19(11):3061-3066. Pubmedid: 1905399. Pmcid: PMC328271.
  • Litman GW, Amemiya CT, Harding FA, Haire RN, Hinds KR, Litman RT, Ohta Y, Shamblott MJ, Varner JA. Evolutionary development of immunoglobulin gene diversity. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1991;292:11-17. Pubmedid: 1950762.
  • Haire RN, Amemiya CT, Suzuki D, Litman GW. Eleven distinct VH gene families and additional patterns of sequence variation suggest a high degree of immunoglobulin gene complexity in a lower vertebrate, Xenopus laevis. J Exp Med. 1990 May;171(5):1721-1737. Pubmedid: 2110243. Pmcid: PMC2187900.
  • Harding FA, Cohen N, Litman GW. Immunoglobulin heavy chain gene organization and complexity in the skate, Raja erinacea. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990 Feb;18(4):1015-1020. Pubmedid: 2107524. Pmcid: PMC330358.
  • Amemiya CT, Litman GW. Complete nucleotide sequence of an immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene and analysis of immunoglobulin gene organization in a primitive teleost species. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Jan;87(2):811-815. Pubmedid: 2105490. Pmcid: PMC53356.
  • Shamblott MJ, Litman GW. Genomic organization and sequences of immunoglobulin light chain genes in a primitive vertebrate suggest coevolution of immunoglobulin gene organization. Embo J. 1989 Dec;8(12):3733-3739. Pubmedid: 2511000. Pmcid: PMC402057.
  • Reinisch CL, Litman GW. Evolutionary immunobiology. Immunol Today. 1989 Aug;10(8):278-281. Pubmedid: 2679648.
  • Amemiya CT, Haire RN, Litman GW. Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA encoding a third distinct Xenopus immunoglobulin heavy chain isotype. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989 Jul;17(13):5388. Pubmedid: 2503814. Pmcid: PMC318127.
  • Shamblott MJ, Litman GW. Complete nucleotide sequence of primitive vertebrate immunoglobulin light chain genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Jun;86(12):4684-4688. Pubmedid: 2499889. Pmcid: PMC287335.
  • Haire RN, Shamblott MJ, Amemiya CT, Litman GW. A second Xenopus immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region isotype gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989 Feb;17(4):1776. Pubmedid: 16617486. Pmcid: PMC331852.
  • Kokubu F, Litman R, Shamblott MJ, Hinds K, Litman GW. Diverse organization of immunoglobulin VH gene loci in a primitive vertebrate. Embo J. 1988 Nov;7(11):3413-3422. Pubmedid: 3145194. Pmcid: PMC454840.
  • Kokubu F, Hinds K, Litman R, Shamblott MJ, Litman GW. Extensive families of constant region genes in a phylogenetically primitive vertebrate indicate an additional level of immunoglobulin complexity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Aug;84(16):5868-5872. Pubmedid: 3475706. Pmcid: PMC298964.
  • Brandau DT, Lawson EQ, Middaugh CR, Litman GW. The effect of interchain disulfide bond cleavage on the cold induced precipitation of cryoimmunoglobulins. Immunol Invest. 1986 Aug;15(5):447-462. Pubmedid: 3781575.
  • Hinds KR, Litman GW. Major reorganization of immunoglobulin VH segmental elements during vertebrate evolution. Nature. 1986 Apr;320(6062):546-549. Pubmedid: 3083268.
  • Litman GW, Berger L, Murphy K, Litman R, Hinds K, Erickson BW. Immunoglobulin VH gene structure and diversity in Heterodontus, a phylogenetically primitive shark. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Apr;82(7):2082-2086. Pubmedid: 3920659. Pmcid: PMC397496.
  • Litman GW, Murphy K, Berger L, Litman R, Hinds K, Erickson BW. Complete nucleotide sequences of three VH genes in Caiman, a phylogenetically ancient reptile: evolutionary diversification in coding segments and variation in the structure and organization of recombination elements. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Feb;82(3):844-848. Pubmedid: 2983316. Pmcid: PMC397143.
  • Shen FW, Chaganti RS, Doucette LA, Litman GW, Steinmetz M, Hood L, Boyse EA. Genomic constitution of an H-2:Tla variant leukemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Oct;81(20):6447-6450. Pubmedid: 6593710. Pmcid: PMC391941.
  • Litman GW, Berger L, Murphy K, Litman R, Hinds K, Jahn CL, Erickson BW. Complete nucleotide sequence of an immunoglobulin VH gene homologue from Caiman, a phylogenetically ancient reptile. Nature. 1983 May;303(5915):349-352. Pubmedid: 6406897.
  • Litman GW, Berger L, Jahn CL. Multiple components in restriction enzyme digests of mammalian (insectivore), avian and reptilian genomic DNA hybridize with murine immunoglobulin VH probes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1982 Jun;10(11):3371-3380. Pubmedid: 6285298. Pmcid: PMC320717.
  • Litman GW, Erickson BW, Lederman L, Mäkelä O. Antibody response in Heterodontus. Mol Cell Biochem. 1982 May;45(1):49-57. Pubmedid: 7110125.
  • Jenson JC, FitzGibbon J, Brennan LA, Litman GW. Binding of benzo[a]pyrene to histones and altered affinity of modified histone 1 for deoxyribonucleic acid. Biochemistry-Us. 1982 Feb;21(4):601-607. Pubmedid: 6280751.
  • Jenson JC, Gerber-Jenson B, Litman GW. Lysines of histone 1 represent the principal target for covalent binding of microsomally activated benzo[a]pyrene in vitro. Carcinogenesis. 1982;3(9):999-1003. Pubmedid: 6814781.
  • Gerber-Jenson B, Kazin A, Kehoe JM, Scheffel C, Erickson BW, Litman GW. Molecular basis for the temperature-dependent insolubility of cryoglobulins. X. The amino acid sequence of the heavy chain variable region of McE. J Immunol. 1981 Mar;126(3):1212-1216. Pubmedid: 6780622.
  • Aberlin ME, Litman GW. Differential perturbation of erythrocyte membrane function by structurally related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1981 Jan;640(2):595-608. Pubmedid: 6783142.
  • Mäkelä O, Litman GW. Lack of heterogeneity in antihapten antibodies of a phylogenetically primitive shark. Nature. 1980 Oct;287(5783):639-640. Pubmedid: 6159540.
  • Litman GW, Scheffel C, Gerber-Jenson B. Immunoglobulin diversity in the phylogenetically primitive shark, Heterodontus francisci. Suggested lack of structural variation between light chains isolated from different animals. J Immunogenet. 1980 Jun;7(3):197-206. Pubmedid: 6774027.
  • Jenson JC, Chin-Lin P, Gerber-Jenson B, Litman GW. Structurally unique basic protein coextracted with histones from calf thymus chromatin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Mar;77(3):1389-1393. Pubmedid: 6929493. Pmcid: PMC348500.
  • Anderson M, Rast J, Litman G. Phylogenetic diversification of antibody genes. In: Zanetti M, Capra J, eds. The Antibodies Vol. 3. Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Harwood Academic Publishers; 1997;107-139.
  • Miracle A, Hawke N, Anderson M, Litman G. The phylogenetic development of the cells that express and mechanisms that diversify immunoglobulins and T-cell antigen receptors. In: Zon L, ed. A developmental approach. Oxford University Press; 2001;565-573.
  • Amemiya C, Ota T, Litman G. Construction of P1 artificial chromosome (PAC) libraries from lower vertebrates. In: Lai E, Birren B, eds. Analysis of nonmammalian genomes: a practical guide. Academic Press; 1996;223-256.
  • Litman G, Anderson M, Rast J, Amemiya C. Organization and mechanism of rearrangement of immunoglobuin genes in lower vertebrates. In: Weir's Handbook of experimental immunology. Vol I: Immunochemistry and molecular immunology. 5th ed. Blackwell Scientific; 1996;18.1-18.14.
  • Litman G, Anderson M, Rast J, Amemiya C. Ogranization and mechanism of rearrangement of immunoglobuin genes in lower vertebrates. In: Herzenber L, Weir D, Blackwell C, et al, eds. Weir's Handbook of experimental immunology. Vol I: Immunochemistry and molecular immunology. 5th ed. Blackwell Scientific; 1996;18.1-18.14.
  • Rast J, Anderson M, Litman G. The structure and organization of immunoglobulin genes in lower vertebrates. In: Honjo T, Alt FW, eds. Immunoglobulin Genes. 1995 ed. Academic Press; 1995;315-341.
  • Aberlin ME, Litman GW. Differential perturbation of erythrocyte membrane-associated transport and enzyme activities by structurally related lipophilic compounds. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1979 May;553(1):96-106. Pubmedid: 110344.
  • Middaugh CR, Litman GW. Investigations of the molecular basis for the temperature-dependent insolubility of cryoglobulins. VI. Quenching by acrylamide of the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of cryoglobulin and non-cryoglobulin IgM proteins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1978 Jul;535(1):33-43. Pubmedid: 667117.
  • Wang AC, Mathur S, Pandey J, Siegel FP, Middaugh CR, Litman GW. Hv(1), a variable-region genetic marker of human immunoglobulin heavy chains. Science. 1978 Apr;200(4339):327-329. Pubmedid: 416494.
  • Middaugh CR, Litman GW. Effect of solutes on the cold-induced insolubility of monoclonal cryoimmunoglobulins. J Biol Chem. 1977 Nov;252(22):8002-8006. Pubmedid: 914859.
  • Middaugh CR, Litman GW. Effect of D2O on the temperature-dependent solubility of cryoglobulin and noncryoglobulin IgM. FEBS Lett. 1977 Jul;79(1):200-202. Pubmedid: 891928.
  • Hurvitz AI, MacEwen EG, Middaugh CR, Litman GW. Monoclonal cryoglobulinemia with macroglobulinemia in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1977 Mar;170(5):511-513. Pubmedid: 403167.
  • Litman GW, Litman RT, Henry CJ. Analysis of lipophilic carcinogen-membrane interactions using a model human erythrocyte membrane system. Cancer Res. 1976 Feb;36(2 Pt 1):438-444. Pubmedid: 816460.
  • Litman GW, Litman RT, Merz DC. Analysis of polypeptide disposition in human erythrocyte membranes employing membrane inversion. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1975 Jul;394(3):348-360. Pubmedid: 236786.
  • Merz DC, Finstad CL, Litman GW, Good RA. Aspects of vertebrate immunoglobulin evolution. Constancy in light chain electrophoretic behavior. Immunochemistry. 1975 Jul;12(6-7):499-504. Pubmedid: 810412.
  • Litman GW. Relationship between structure and function of lower vertebrate immunoglobulins. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1975;64:217-228. Pubmedid: 1199880.
  • Merz DC, Litman GW, Good RA. A functional examination of hapten-binding derivatives from a murine myeloma protein with immunoglobulin features. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1974 May;71(5):1940-1944. Pubmedid: 4525470. Pmcid: PMC388358.
  • Finstad CL, Good RA, Litman GW. The erythrocyte agglutinin from Limulus polyphemus hemolymph: molecular structure and biological function. Ann Ny Acad Sci. 1974;234(0):170-182. Pubmedid: 4528782.
  • Litman GW, Litman RS, Good RA, Rosenberg A. Molecular dissection of immunoglobulin G. Conformational interrelationships of the subunits of human immunoglobulin G. Biochemistry-Us. 1973 May;12(10):2004-2011. Pubmedid: 4574342.
  • Litman GW, Chartrand SL, Finstad CL, Good RA. Active sites of turtle and duck low molecular weight antibody to 2'4'dinitrophenol. Immunochemistry. 1973 May;10(5):323-329. Pubmedid: 4200121.
  • Finstad CL, Litman GW, Finstad J, Good RA. The evolution of the immune response. 13. The characterization of purified erythrocyte agglutinins from two invertebrate species. J Immunol. 1972 Jun;108(6):1704-1711. Pubmedid: 4624179.
  • Litman GW, Good RA. Extrinsic cotton effects associated with affinity labeled MOPC 315 myeloma protein. Biochem Bioph Res Co. 1972 Apr;47(2):341-347. Pubmedid: 4662396.
  • Litman GW, Wang AC, Fudenberg HH, Good RA. N-terminal amino-acid sequence of African lungfish immunoglobulin light chains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1971 Oct;68(10):2321-2324. Pubmedid: 5289864. Pmcid: PMC389412.
  • Litman GW, Frommel D, Finstad J, Good RA. Evolution of the immune response. X. Immunoglobulins of the bowfin: subunit nature. J Immunol. 1971 Sep;107(3):881-888. Pubmedid: 4105936.
  • Chartrand SL, Litman GW, Lapointe N, Good RA, Frommel D. The evolution of the immune response. XII. The immunoglobulins of the turtle. Molecular requirements for biologic activity of 5. J Immunol. 1971 Jul;107(1):1-11. Pubmedid: 4103916.
  • Frommel D, Litman GW, Chartrand SL, Seal US, Good RA. Carbohydrate composition in the evolution of the immunoglobulins. Immunochemistry. 1971 Jun;8(6):573-577. Pubmedid: 4104187.
  • Litman GW, Frommel D, Rosenberg A, Good RA. Circular dichroic analysis of immunoglobulins in phylogenetic perspective. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1971 Jun;236(3):647-654. Pubmedid: 4105604.
  • Frommel D, Litman GW, Finstad J, Good RA. The evolution of the immune response. XI. The immunoglobulins of the horned shark, Heterodontus francisci: purification, characterization and structural requirement for antibody activity. J Immunol. 1971 May;106(5):1234-1243. Pubmedid: 4102400.
  • Litman GW, Fromme D, Chartrand SL, Finstad J, Good RA. Significance of heavy chain mass and antigenic relationship in immunoglobulin evolution. Immunochemistry. 1971 Apr;8(4):345-349. Pubmedid: 4104634.
  • Litman GW, Frommel D, Finstad J, Good RA. The evolution of the immune reponse. IX. Immunoglobulins of the bowfin: purification and characterization. J Immunol. 1971 Mar;106(3):747-754. Pubmedid: 4100690.
  • Litman GW, Rosenberg A, Frommel D, Pollara B, Finstad J, Good RA. Biophysical studies of the immunoglobulins. The circular dichroic spectra of the immunoglobulins--a phylogenetic comparison. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 1971;40(4-5):551-575. Pubmedid: 4102843.
  • Litman GW, Finstad FJ, Howell J, Pollara BW, Good RA. The evolution of the immune response. VIII. Structural studies of the lamprey immuoglobulin. J Immunol. 1970 Nov;105(5):1278-1285. Pubmedid: 4099053.
  • Litman GW, Good RA, Frommel D, Rosenberg A. Conformational significance of the intrachain disulfide linkages in immunoglobulins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1970 Nov;67(3):1085-1092. Pubmedid: 4098723. Pmcid: PMC283320.
  • Pollara B, Litman GW, Finstad J, Howell J, Good RA. The evolution of the immune response. VII. Antibody to human "O" cells and properties of the immunoglobulin in lamprey. J Immunol. 1970 Sep;105(3):738-745. Pubmedid: 4195499.
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