Caroline B. Appleyard, PhD

Where You Are:
Caroline B. Appleyard, PhD

Office  (787) 840-2575

Education And Training
  • PhD, University of Southampton, UK, 1993 - Clinical Pharmacology Group
  • BSc, University of Edinburgh, UK, 1989 - Pharmacology

Dr. Appleyard's research interests are in the molecular basis of ulcerative colitis-associated dysplasia. One of the complications of Ulcerative Colitis is an increased risk for the development of cancer of the colon and rectum. Little is know about the transition from chronic inflammation into dysplasia and colorectal cancer, so the lab is currently attempting to develop a model of colitis-associated dysplasia which could be used to identify genetic alterations present in tumors. We will compare the development of dysplasia in animals which have tumors induced by a well-known carcinogen to that observed in animals with long term chronic intestinal inflammation, and controls. Dr. Appleyard and her associates aim to establish a profile of cancer related gene mutations (specifically p53, K-ras and APC) during the transition of inflammation to dysplasia, and correlate these with both histological and inflammatory changes. This may thus provide a molecular tool for improved estimation of diagnosis in patients with long standing ulcerative colitis as to their progression to colorectal cancer.

  • Pacheco WI, Noel RJ, Porter JT, Appleyard CB. Beyond the GRE: Using a Composite Score to Predict 
the Success of Puerto Rican Students in a Biomedical 
PhD Program. CBE Life Sci Educ. 2015 Jun;14(2). Pubmedid: 25828404.
  • Appleyard CB, Cruz ML, Hernández S, Thompson KJ, Bayona M, Flores I. Stress management affects outcomes in the pathophysiology of an endometriosis model. Reprod Sci. 2015 Apr;22(4):431-441. Pubmedid: 25015902.
  • Isidro RA, Cruz ML, Isidro AA, Baez A, Arroyo A, González-Marqués WA, González-Keelan C, Torres EA, Appleyard CB. Immunohistochemical expression of SP-NK-1R-EGFR pathway and VDR in colonic inflammation and neoplasia. World J Gastroenterol. 2015 Feb;21(6):1749-1758. Pubmedid: 25684939. Pmcid: PMC4323450.
  • Appleyard CB, Antonia SJ, Sullivan DM, Santiago-Cardona PG, Cáceres W, Velez H, Torres-Ruiz JA, Wright KL. Building a long distance training program to enhance clinical cancer research capacity in puerto rico. Rev Recent Clin Trials. 2015;9(4):254-262. Pubmedid: 25626061. Pmcid: PMC4378863.
  • Baez A, Pacheco W, Appleyard CB. The graduate student portfolio: organize and energize your career development. Physiologist. 2012 Oct;55(5):177-178. Pubmedid: 23155926.
  • Cuevas M, Flores I, Thompson KJ, Ramos-Ortolaza DL, Torres-Reveron A, Appleyard CB. Stress exacerbates endometriosis manifestations and inflammatory parameters in an animal model. Reprod Sci. 2012 Aug;19(8):851-862. Pubmedid: 22527982. Pmcid: PMC4046310.
  • Appleyard CB, Cruz ML, Isidro AA, Arthur JC, Jobin C, De Simone C. Pretreatment with the probiotic VSL#3 delays transition from inflammation to dysplasia in a rat model of colitis-associated cancer. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2011 Dec;301(6):G1004-G1013. Pubmedid: 21903764. Pmcid: PMC3233787.
  • Pagán B, Isidro AA, Cruz ML, Ren Y, Coppola D, Wu J, Appleyard CB. Erlotinib inhibits progression to dysplasia in a colitis-associated colon cancer model. World J Gastroenterol. 2011 Nov;17(44):4858-4866. Pubmedid: 22171126. Pmcid: PMC3235628.
  • Uronis JM, Arthur JC, Keku T, Fodor A, Carroll IM, Cruz ML, Appleyard CB, Jobin C. Gut microbial diversity is reduced by the probiotic VSL#3 and correlates with decreased TNBS-induced colitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2011 Jan;17(1):289-297. Pubmedid: 20564535. Pmcid: PMC2953593.
  • Pagán B, Isidro AA, Coppola D, Chen Z, Ren Y, Wu J, Appleyard CB. Effect of a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist in a rat model of colitis-associated colon cancer. Anticancer Res. 2010 Sep;30(9):3345-3353. Pubmedid: 20944107. Pmcid: PMC3733557.
  • Appleyard CB, Morales M, Santiago C. Chronic inflammation alters the contribution of neurokinin receptor subtypes to epithelial function in rat colon. Digest Dis Sci. 2008 Jan;53(1):220-228. Pubmedid: 17510797.
  • Santiago C, Pagán B, Isidro AA, Appleyard CB. Prolonged chronic inflammation progresses to dysplasia in a novel rat model of colitis-associated colon cancer. Cancer Res. 2007 Nov;67(22):10766-10773. Pubmedid: 18006820.
  • Rivera E, Flores I, Rivera E, Appleyard CB. Molecular profiling of a rat model of colitis: validation of known inflammatory genes and identification of novel disease-associated targets. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2006 Oct;12(10):950-966. Pubmedid: 17012966.
  • Appleyard CB, Morales M, Percy WH. Regional variations in neurokinin receptor subtype contributions to muscularis mucosae and epithelial function in rat colon. Digest Dis Sci. 2006 Mar;51(3):506-516. Pubmedid: 16614960.
  • Rojas-Cartagena C, Flores I, Appleyard CB. Role of tumor necrosis factor receptors in an animal model of acute colitis. Cytokine. 2005 Oct;32(2):85-93. Pubmedid: 16213154.
  • Hernández GA, Appleyard CB. Bacterial load in animal models of acute and chronic 'reactivated' colitis. Digestion. 2003;67(3):161-169. Pubmedid: 12853728.
  • Asfaha S, MacNaughton WK, Appleyard CB, Chadee K, Wallace JL. Persistent epithelial dysfunction and bacterial translocation after resolution of intestinal inflammation. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2001 Sep;281(3):G635-G644. Pubmedid: 11518675.
  • Hathaway CA, Appleyard CB, Percy WH, Williams JL. Experimental colitis increases blood-brain barrier permeability in rabbits. Am J Physiol. 1999 May;276(5 Pt 1):G1174-G1180. Pubmedid: 10330008.
  • Appleyard CB, Williams JL, Hathaway CA, Percy WH. Temporal patterns of colonic blood flow and tissue damage in an animal model of colitis. Digest Dis Sci. 1999 Feb;44(2):431-438. Pubmedid: 10063934.
  • Ferraz JG, Tigley AW, Appleyard CB, Wallace JL. TNF-alpha contributes to the pathogenesis of ethanol-induced gastric damage in cirrhotic rats. Am J Physiol. 1997 Apr;272(4 Pt 1):G809-G814. Pubmedid: 9142912.
  • Davies NM, Røseth AG, Appleyard CB, McKnight W, Del Soldato P, Calignano A, Cirino G, Wallace JL. NO-naproxen vs. naproxen: ulcerogenic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1997 Feb;11(1):69-79. Pubmedid: 9042976.
  • Swain MG, Appleyard CB, Wallace JL, Maric M. TNF-alpha facilitates inflammation-induced glucocorticoid secretion in rats with biliary obstruction. J Hepatol. 1997 Feb;26(2):361-368. Pubmedid: 9059958.
  • Appleyard CB, McCafferty DM, Tigley AW, Swain MG, Wallace JL. Tumor necrosis factor mediation of NSAID-induced gastric damage: role of leukocyte adherence. Am J Physiol. 1996 Jan;270(1 Pt 1):G42-G48. Pubmedid: 8772499.
  • Wallace JL, Le T, Carter L, Appleyard CB, Beck PL. Hapten-induced chronic colitis in the rat: alternatives to trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 1995 Aug;33(4):237-239. Pubmedid: 8527832.
  • Appleyard CB, Wallace JL. Reactivation of hapten-induced colitis and its prevention by anti-inflammatory drugs. Am J Physiol. 1995 Jul;269(1 Pt 1):G119-G125. Pubmedid: 7631788.
  • Appleyard CB, Hillier K. Catabolism of platelet-activating factor by human colonic mucosa. Calcium dependence of the catabolizing enzymes. Biochem Pharmacol. 1992 Jun;43(12):2503-2509. Pubmedid: 1632809.
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