Amer A. Beg, PhD

Where You Are:
Amer A. Beg, PhD

Senior Member

"A better understanding of how NF-kappa B subunits regulate unique aspects of DC function can open up new avenues to modulate DC function in cancer"

Office  (813) 745-5714

Education And Training
  • Postdoctoral Fellow, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1996
  • Postdoctoral Fellow, Rockefeller University, 1994
  • PhD, University of North Carolina- Chapel Hill, 1993 - Biology
  • MS, Quaid-e-Azam University (Islamabad, Pakistan), 1987 - Biology


The NF-kappa B proteins comprise a family of transcription factors that regulate key genes involved in immune responses, inflammation, cell death and cell proliferation. A main focus of research in my laboratory is to understand the specific role played by different NF-kappa B subunits in regulating inflammatory and immune responses. These closely linked responses play a crucial role in protecting us from pathogens such as bacteria and viruses. However, impaired regulation of these responses also underlie many human ailments, including autoimmune disease and cancer. We are particularly interested in the role played by NF-kappa B proteins in dendritic cells (DCs) and T lymphocytes. Working together, these two cell types perhaps play the most important role in initiating an immune response. DCs capture bacterial and viral antigens, a process that also induces DC activation. These antigens are displayed on the surface of DCs, where they are recognized by the T cell receptor (TCR) present on T cells. In addition, various co-stimulatory molecules and cytokines expressed by activated DCs further help induce T cell proliferation and effector function. Through both direct and indirect mechanisms, T cells help eliminate infectious agents. In addition, there is great promise in harnessing the power of DCs in activating T cells capable of recognizing and destroying cancerous tissue.

Our studies utilize mice in which different subunits of NK-kappa B have been ?knocked-out?. Recent studies from my laboratory have shown that TCR engagement provides the primary NF-kappa B activating signal in T cells. Our in vitro and in vivo studies have further shown that NF-kappa B is essential for inducing cell cycle progression and survival of T cells. We are currently investigating the role played by different NF-kappa B subunits in generating effector and memory T cells, as well as their roles in modulating T cell responses in autoimmunity and cancer. In DCs, we have found essential roles for different NF-kappa B subunits in regulating DC development, survival and cytokine production. Current projects in the laboratory include investigation of mechanisms by which different NF-kappa B subunits specifically regulate genes involved in inflammation or immunity. For these studies, we are also utilizing techniques for genome wide analysis of gene expression in DCs. A better understanding of how different NF-kappa B subunits regulate unique aspects of DC function can open up new avenues for modulating DC function in infection, autoimmunity and cancer.

  • Schabath MB, Giuliano AR, Thompson ZJ, Amankwah EK, Gray J, Fenstermacher DA, Jonathan KA, Beg AA, Haura EB. TNFRSF10B polymorphisms and haplotypes associated with increased risk of death in non-small cell lung cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2013 Nov;34(11):2525-2530. Pubmedid: 23839018. Pmcid: PMC3810840.
  • Haarberg KM, Li J, Heinrichs J, Wang D, Liu C, Bronk CC, Kaosaard K, Owyang AM, Holland S, Masuda E, Tso K, Blazar BR, Anasetti C, Beg AA, Yu XZ. Pharmacologic inhibition of PKCα and PKCθ prevents GVHD while preserving GVL activity in mice. Blood. 2013 Oct;122(14):2500-2511. Pubmedid: 23908466. Pmcid: PMC3790515.
  • Beg AA, Khan T, Antonia SJ. A new role for NFκB in immunosurveillance and its implications for cancer immunotherapy. Oncoimmunology. 2013 Oct;2(10):e25963. Pubmedid: 24404421.
  • Yu Y, Wang D, Kaosaard K, Liu C, Fu J, Haarberg K, Anasetti C, Beg AA, Yu XZ. c-Rel is an essential transcription factor for the development of acute graft-versus-host disease in mice. Eur J Immunol. 2013 Sep;43(9):2327-2337. Pubmedid: 23716202. Pmcid: PMC3940138.
  • Kim JY, Beg AA, Haura EB. Non-canonical IKKs, IKKϵ and TBK1, as novel therapeutic targets in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2013 Aug;17(10):1109-1112. Pubmedid: 23984985.
  • Kim JY, Welsh EA, Oguz U, Fang B, Bai Y, Kinose F, Bronk C, Remsing Rix LL, Beg AA, Rix U, Eschrich SA, Koomen JM, Haura EB. Dissection of TBK1 signaling via phosphoproteomics in lung cancer cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jul;110(30):12414-12419. Pubmedid: 23836654. Pmcid: PMC3725062.
  • Hopewell EL, Zhao W, Fulp WJ, Bronk CC, Lopez AS, Massengill M, Antonia S, Celis E, Haura EB, Enkemann SA, Chen DT, Beg AA. Lung tumor NF-κB signaling promotes T cell-mediated immune surveillance. J Clin Invest. 2013 Jun;123(6):2509-2522. Pubmedid: 23635779. Pmcid: PMC3668836.
  • Vester A, Velez-Ruiz G, McLaughlin HM, Nisc Comparative Sequencing Program , Lupski JR, Talbot K, Vance JM, Züchner S, Roda RH, Fischbeck KH, Biesecker LG, Nicholson G, Beg AA, Antonellis A. A loss-of-function variant in the human histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HARS) gene is neurotoxic in vivo. Hum Mutat. 2013 Jan;34(1):191-199. Pubmedid: 22930593. Pmcid: PMC3535524.
  • Guo J, Kim D, Gao J, Kurtyka C, Chen H, Yu C, Wu D, Mittal A, Beg AA, Chellappan SP, Haura EB, Cheng JQ. IKBKE is induced by STAT3 and tobacco carcinogen and determines chemosensitivity in non-small cell lung cancer. Oncogene. 2013 Jan;32(2):151-159. Pubmedid: 22330135.
  • Hopewell EL, Bronk CC, Massengill M, Engelman RW, Beg AA. IKKβ-induced inflammation impacts the kinetics but not the magnitude of the immune response to a viral vector. Eur J Immunol. 2012 Jul;42(3):681-687. Pubmedid: 22161279. Pmcid: PMC3415707.
  • Bronk CC, Yu XZ, Beg AA. Targeting PKCθ in alloreactivity and graft-versus-host-disease: unanswered questions and therapeutic potential. Front Immunol. 2012;3:259. Pubmedid: 22912640. Pmcid: PMC3418525.
  • Mauro C, Leow SC, Anso E, Rocha S, Thotakura AK, Tornatore L, Moretti M, De Smaele E, Beg AA, Tergaonkar V, Chandel NS, Franzoso G. NF-κB controls energy homeostasis and metabolic adaptation by upregulating mitochondrial respiration. Nat Cell Biol. 2011 Oct;13(10):1272-1279. Pubmedid: 21968997. Pmcid: PMC3462316.
  • Ruan Q, Kameswaran V, Zhang Y, Zheng S, Sun J, Wang J, DeVirgiliis J, Liou HC, Beg AA, Chen YH. The Th17 immune response is controlled by the Rel-RORγ-RORγ T transcriptional axis. J Exp Med. 2011 Oct;208(11):2321-2333. Pubmedid: 22006976. Pmcid: PMC3201209.
  • Balachandran S, Beg AA. Defining emerging roles for NF-κB in antivirus responses: revisiting the interferon-β enhanceosome paradigm. PLoS Pathog. 2011 Oct;7(10):e1002165. Pubmedid: 22022260. Pmcid: PMC3192840.
  • Thapa RJ, Basagoudanavar SH, Nogusa S, Irrinki K, Mallilankaraman K, Slifker MJ, Beg AA, Madesh M, Balachandran S. NF-kappaB protects cells from gamma interferon-induced RIP1-dependent necroptosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2011 Jul;31(14):2934-2946. Pubmedid: 21576359. Pmcid: PMC3133390.
  • Basagoudanavar SH, Thapa RJ, Nogusa S, Wang J, Beg AA, Balachandran S. Distinct roles for the NF-kappa B RelA subunit during antiviral innate immune responses. J Virol. 2011 Mar;85(6):2599-2610. Pubmedid: 21209118. Pmcid: PMC3067974.
  • Ju J, Naura AS, Errami Y, Zerfaoui M, Kim H, Kim JG, Abd Elmageed ZY, Abdel-Mageed AB, Giardina C, Beg AA, Smulson ME, Boulares AH. Phosphorylation of p50 NF-kappaB at a single serine residue by DNA-dependent protein kinase is critical for VCAM-1 expression upon TNF treatment. J Biol Chem. 2010 Dec;285(52):41152-41160. Pubmedid: 20966071. Pmcid: PMC3003413.
  • Scheiffele P, Beg AA. Neuroscience: Angelman syndrome connections. Nature. 2010 Dec;468(7326):907-908. Pubmedid: 21164477.
  • Wang J, Basagoudanavar SH, Wang X, Hopewell E, Albrecht R, García-Sastre A, Balachandran S, Beg AA. NF-kappa B RelA subunit is crucial for early IFN-beta expression and resistance to RNA virus replication. J Immunol. 2010 Aug;185(3):1720-1729. Pubmedid: 20610653. Pmcid: PMC2910841.
  • Vang KB, Yang J, Pagán AJ, Li LX, Wang J, Green JM, Beg AA, Farrar MA. Cutting edge: CD28 and c-Rel-dependent pathways initiate regulatory T cell development. J Immunol. 2010 Apr;184(8):4074-4077. Pubmedid: 20228198. Pmcid: PMC2851483.
  • Valenzuela JO, Iclozan C, Hossain MS, Prlic M, Hopewell E, Bronk CC, Wang J, Celis E, Engelman RW, Blazar BR, Bevan MJ, Waller EK, Yu XZ, Beg AA. PKCtheta is required for alloreactivity and GVHD but not for immune responses toward leukemia and infection in mice. J Clin Invest. 2010 Jan;119(12):3774-3786. Pubmedid: 19907075. Pmcid: PMC2786796.
  • Plumlee CR, Lee C, Beg AA, Decker T, Shuman HA, Schindler C. Interferons direct an effective innate response to Legionella pneumophila infection. J Biol Chem. 2009 Dec;284(44):30058-30066. Pubmedid: 19720834. Pmcid: PMC2781560.
  • Yarde DN, Oliveira V, Mathews L, Wang X, Villagra A, Boulware D, Shain KH, Hazlehurst LA, Alsina M, Chen DT, Beg AA, Dalton WS. Targeting the Fanconi anemia/BRCA pathway circumvents drug resistance in multiple myeloma. Cancer Res. 2009 Dec;69(24):9367-9375. Pubmedid: 19934314.
  • Wang J, Jacob NK, Ladner KJ, Beg A, Perko JD, Tanner SM, Liyanarachchi S, Fishel R, Guttridge DC. RelA/p65 functions to maintain cellular senescence by regulating genomic stability and DNA repair. EMBO Rep. 2009 Nov;10(11):1272-1278. Pubmedid: 19779484. Pmcid: PMC2775178.
  • Ni HM, Chen X, Shi YH, Liao Y, Beg AA, Fan J, Yin XM. Genetic delineation of the pathways mediated by bid and JNK in tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced liver injury in adult and embryonic mice. J Biol Chem. 2009 Mar;284(7):4373-4382. Pubmedid: 19060338. Pmcid: PMC2640960.
  • Beg AA, Ernstrom GG, Nix P, Davis MW, Jorgensen EM. Protons act as a transmitter for muscle contraction in C. elegans. Cell. 2008 Jan;132(1):149-160. Pubmedid: 18191228. Pmcid: PMC2258244.
  • Nefedova Y, Fishman M, Sherman S, Wang X, Beg A, Gabrilovich D. Mechanism of all-trans retinoic acid effect on tumor-associated myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Cancer Res. 2007 Nov;67(22):11021-11028. Pubmedid: 18006848.
  • Beg AA, Sommer JE, Martin JH, Scheiffele P. alpha2-Chimaerin is an essential EphA4 effector in the assembly of neuronal locomotor circuits. Neuron. 2007 Sep;55(5):768-778. Pubmedid: 17785183.
  • Wang X, Hussain S, Wang E, Wang X, Li M, Garcia-Sastre A, Beg A. Lack of Essential Role of NF-{kappa}B p50, RelA, and cRel Subunits in Virus-Induced Type 1 IFN Expression. J Immunol. 2007 Jun;178(11):6770-6776. Pubmedid: 17513724.
  • Wang J, Wang X, Hussain S, Zheng Y, Sanjabi S, Ouaaz F, Beg A. Distinct Roles of Different NF-{kappa}B Subunits in Regulating Inflammatory and T Cell Stimulatory Gene Expression in Dendritic Cells. J Immunol. 2007 Jun;178(11):6777-6788. Pubmedid: 17513725.
  • Acharyya S, Villalta SA, Bakkar N, Bupha-Intr T, Janssen PM, Carathers M, Li ZW, Beg AA, Ghosh S, Sahenk Z, Weinstein M, Gardner KL, Rafael-Fortney JA, Karin M, Tidball JG, Baldwin AS, Guttridge DC. Interplay of IKK/NF-kappaB signaling in macrophages and myofibers promotes muscle degeneration in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. J Clin Invest. 2007 Apr;117(4):889-901. Pubmedid: 17380205. Pmcid: PMC1821069.
  • Chen X, Ding WX, Ni HM, Gao W, Shi YH, Gambotto AA, Fan J, Beg AA, Yin XM. Bid-independent mitochondrial activation in tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis and liver injury. Mol Cell Biol. 2007 Feb;27(2):541-553. Pubmedid: 17101783. Pmcid: PMC1800794.
  • Buttery P, Beg A, Chih B, Broder A, Mason C, Scheiffele P. The diacylglycerol-binding protein alpha1-chimaerin regulates dendritic morphology. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Feb;103(6):1924-1929. Pubmedid: 16446429.
  • Beg A, Scheiffele P. Neuroscience. SUMO wrestles the synapse. Science. 2006 Feb;311(5763):962-963. Pubmedid: 16484483.
  • Nefedova Y, Cheng P, Gilkes D, Blaskovich M, Beg AA, Sebti SM, Gabrilovich DI. Activation of dendritic cells via inhibition of Jak2/STAT3 signaling. J Immunol. 2005 Oct;175(7):4338-4346. Pubmedid: 16177074. Pmcid: PMC1351251.
  • Cavin LG, Venkatraman M, Factor VM, Kaur S, Schroeder I, Mercurio F, Beg AA, Thorgeirsson SS, Arsura M. Regulation of alpha-fetoprotein by nuclear factor-kappaB protects hepatocytes from tumor necrosis factor-alpha cytotoxicity during fetal liver development and hepatic oncogenesis. Cancer Res. 2004 Oct;64(19):7030-7038. Pubmedid: 15466196.
  • Saccani S, Marazzi I, Beg AA, Natoli G. Degradation of promoter-bound p65/RelA is essential for the prompt termination of the nuclear factor kappaB response. J Exp Med. 2004 Jul;200(1):107-113. Pubmedid: 15226358.
  • Schuske K, Beg A, Jorgensen E. The GABA nervous system in C. elegans. Trends Neurosci. 2004 Jul;27(7):407-414. Pubmedid: 15219740.
  • Beg A. ComPPARtmentalizing NF-kappaB in the gut. Nat Immunol. 2004;5(1):14-16. Pubmedid: 14699401.
  • Beg AA, Jorgensen EM. EXP-1 is an excitatory GABA-gated cation channel. Nat Neurosci. 2003 Nov;6(11):1145-1152. Pubmedid: 14555952.
  • Qu J, Li X, Novitch BG, Zheng Y, Kohn M, Xie JM, Kozinn S, Bronson R, Beg AA, Minden A. PAK4 kinase is essential for embryonic viability and for proper neuronal development. Mol Cell Biol. 2003 Oct;23(20):7122-7133. Pubmedid: 14517283. Pmcid: PMC230313.
  • Zheng Y, Vig M, Lyons J, Van Parijs L, Beg AA. Combined deficiency of p50 and cRel in CD4+ T cells reveals an essential requirement for nuclear factor kappaB in regulating mature T cell survival and in vivo function. J Exp Med. 2003 Apr;197(7):861-874. Pubmedid: 12668645. Pmcid: PMC2193891.
  • Prendes M, Zheng Y, Beg A. Regulation of developing B cell survival by RelA-containing NF-kappa B complexes. J Immunol. 2003;171(8):3963-3969. Pubmedid: 14530314.
  • Ouaaz F, Arron J, Zheng Y, Choi Y, Beg A. Dendritic cell development and survival require distinct NF-kappaB subunits. Immunity. 2002;16(2):257-270. Pubmedid: 11869686.
  • Tao X, Xu Y, Zheng Y, Beg A, Tong L. An extensively associated dimer in the structure of the C713S mutant of the TIR domain of human TLR2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;299(2):216-221. Pubmedid: 12437972.
  • Beg A. Endogenous ligands of Toll-like receptors: implications for regulating inflammatory and immune responses. Trends Immunol. 2002;23(11):509-512. Pubmedid: 12401394.
  • Alcamo E, Mizgerd J, Horwitz B, Bronson R, Beg A, Scott M, Doerschuk C, Hynes R, Baltimore D. Targeted mutation of TNF receptor I rescues the RelA-deficient mouse and reveals a critical role for NF-kappa B in leukocyte recruitment. J Immunol. 2001 Aug;167(3):1592-1600. Pubmedid: 11466381.
  • Li M, Carpio D, Zheng Y, Bruzzo P, Singh V, Ouaaz F, Medzhitov R, Beg A. An essential role of the NF-kappa B/Toll-like receptor pathway in induction of inflammatory and tissue-repair gene expression by necrotic cells. J Immunol. 2001 Jun;166(12):7128-7135. Pubmedid: 11390458.
  • Zheng Y, Ouaaz F, Bruzzo P, Singh V, Gerondakis S, Beg A. NF-kappa B RelA (p65) is essential for TNF-alpha-induced fas expression but dispensable for both TCR-induced expression and activation-induced cell death. J Immunol. 2001 Apr;166(8):4949-4957. Pubmedid: 11290773.
  • Li M, Shillinglaw W, Henzel W, Beg A. The Rela(p65) subunit of NF-kappaB is essential for inhibiting double-stranded RNA-induced cytotoxicity. J Biol Chem. 2001 Jan;276(2):1185-1194. Pubmedid: 11035014.
  • Wang X, Li M, Zheng H, Muster T, Palese P, Beg A, Garcia-Sastre A. Influenza A virus NS1 protein prevents activation of NF-kappaB and induction of alpha/beta interferon. J Virol. 2000 Dec;74(24):11566-11573. Pubmedid: 11090154.
  • Li M, Beg AA. Induction of necrotic-like cell death by tumor necrosis factor alpha and caspase inhibitors: novel mechanism for killing virus-infected cells. J Virol. 2000 Aug;74(16):7470-7477. Pubmedid: 10906200. Pmcid: PMC112267.
  • Bitzer M, von Gersdorff G, Liang D, Dominguez-Rosales A, Beg AA, Rojkind M, Böttinger EP. A mechanism of suppression of TGF-beta/SMAD signaling by NF-kappa B/RelA. Gene Dev. 2000 Jan;14(2):187-197. Pubmedid: 10652273. Pmcid: PMC316349.
  • Bamber B, Beg A, Twyman R, Jorgensen E. The Caenorhabditis elegans unc-49 locus encodes multiple subunits of a heteromultimeric GABA receptor. J Neurosci. 1999 Jul;19(13):5348-5359. Pubmedid: 10377345.
  • Ouaaz F, Li M, Beg A. A critical role for the RelA subunit of nuclear factor kappaB in regulation of multiple immune-response genes and in Fas-induced cell death. J Exp Med. 1999 Mar;189(6):999-1004. Pubmedid: 10075983.
  • Finco T, Westwick J, Norris J, Beg A, Der C, Baldwin AS J. Oncogenic Ha-Ras-induced signaling activates NF-kappaB transcriptional activity, which is required for cellular transformation. J Biol Chem. 1997 Sep;272(39):24113-24116. Pubmedid: 09305854.
  • Beg A, Baltimore D. An essential role for NF-kappaB in preventing TNF-alpha-induced cell death. Science. 1996 Nov;274(5288):782-784. Pubmedid: 08864118.
  • Beg A, Sha W, Bronson R, Baltimore D. Constitutive NF-kappa B activation, enhanced granulopoiesis, and neonatal lethality in I kappa B alpha-deficient mice. Genes Dev. 1995 Nov;9(22):2736-2746. Pubmedid: 07590249.
  • Beg A, Sha W, Bronson R, Ghosh S, Baltimore D. Embryonic lethality and liver degeneration in mice lacking the RelA component of NF-kappa B. Nature. 1995 Jul;376(6536):167-170. Pubmedid: 07603567.
  • Baltimore D, Beg A. DNA-binding proteins. A butterfly flutters by. Nature. 1995 Jan;373(6512):287-288. Pubmedid: 07830761.
  • Finco T, Beg A, Baldwin AS J. Inducible phosphorylation of I kappa B alpha is not sufficient for its dissociation from NF-kappa B and is inhibited by protease inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Dec;91(25):11884-11888. Pubmedid: 07991551.
  • Finco TS, Beg AA, Baldwin AS. Inducible phosphorylation of I kappa B alpha is not sufficient for its dissociation from NF-kappa B and is inhibited by protease inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Dec;91(25):11884-11888. Pubmedid: 7991551. Pmcid: PMC45340.
  • Beg A, Baldwin AS J. Activation of multiple NF-kappa B/Rel DNA-binding complexes by tumor necrosis factor. Oncogene. 1994 May;9(5):1487-1492. Pubmedid: 08152812.
  • Beg A, Baldwin AS J. The I kappa B proteins: multifunctional regulators of Rel/NF-kappa B transcription factors. Genes Dev. 1993 Nov;7(11):2064-2070. Pubmedid: 08224838.
  • Scheinman R, Beg A, Baldwin AS J. NF-kappa B p100 (Lyt-10) is a component of H2TF1 and can function as an I kappa B-like molecule. Mol Cell Biol. 1993 Oct;13(10):6089-6101. Pubmedid: 08413211.
  • Scheinman RI, Beg AA, Baldwin AS. NF-kappa B p100 (Lyt-10) is a component of H2TF1 and can function as an I kappa B-like molecule. Mol Cell Biol. 1993 Oct;13(10):6089-6101. Pubmedid: 8413211. Pmcid: PMC364669.
  • Beg A, Finco T, Nantermet P, Baldwin AS J. Tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 lead to phosphorylation and loss of I kappa B alpha: a mechanism for NF-kappa B activation. Mol Cell Biol. 1993 Jun;13(6):3301-3310. Pubmedid: 08497253.
  • Beg AA, Finco TS, Nantermet PV, Baldwin AS. Tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 lead to phosphorylation and loss of I kappa B alpha: a mechanism for NF-kappa B activation. Mol Cell Biol. 1993 Jun;13(6):3301-3310. Pubmedid: 8497253. Pmcid: PMC359784.
  • Beg A, Ruben S, Scheinman R, Haskill S, Rosen C, Baldwin AS J. I kappa B interacts with the nuclear localization sequences of the subunits of NF-kappa B: a mechanism for cytoplasmic retention. Genes Dev. 1992 Oct;6(12):2664-2665. Pubmedid: 01340770.
  • Baldwin AS, Azizkhan JC, Jensen DE, Beg AA, Coodly LR. Induction of NF-kappa B DNA-binding activity during the G0-to-G1 transition in mouse fibroblasts. Mol Cell Biol. 1991 Oct;11(10):4943-4951. Pubmedid: 1922027. Pmcid: PMC361472.
  • Baldwin AS J, Azizkhan J, Jensen D, Beg A, Coodly L. Induction of NF-kappa B DNA-binding activity during the G0-to-G1 transition in mouse fibroblasts. Mol Cell Biol. 1991 Oct;11(10):4943-4951. Pubmedid: 01922027.
  • Haskill S, Beg A, Tompkins S, Morris J, Yurochko A, Sampson-Johannes A, Mondal K, Ralph P, Baldwin AS J. Characterization of an immediate-early gene induced in adherent monocytes that encodes I kappa B-like activity. Cell. 1991 Jun;65(7):1281-1289. Pubmedid: 01829648.
  • Beg AA, Varma VK, Dash RJ. Effect of chlorpromazine on human growth hormone. Am J Psychiatry. 1979 Jul;136(7):914-917. Pubmedid: 453353.
  • Beg A, Varma V, Dash R. Effect of chlorpromazine on human growth hormone. Am J Psychiatry. 1979 Jul;136(7):914-917. Pubmedid: 0453353 .
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