– Jamie K. Teer
, Ph.D., assistant member of the Cancer Biology and Evolution Program
at Moffitt Cancer Center
, and colleagues have developed a new streamlined method to rapidly identify the genetic changes in small protein fragments unique to melanoma cancer cells. These fragments can be used as targets for tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes that have been shown to reduce cancerous lesions.
The new approach is outlined in an article
published online by Nature Medicine
A previous phase 2 clinical trial showed substantial regression of metastatic lesions in up to 70 percent of melanoma patients who were treated with self-donated tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.
“The trial, which involved the adaptive transfer of a patient’s own immune cells, showed a complete tumor regression lasting at least five years in nearly 40 percent of the patients,” Teer said. “To better understand how this works, researchers needed to identify tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. We developed a new method to help do that more quickly.”
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are white blood cells that have left the bloodstream and migrated into a tumor. When numerous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are present, it suggests an immune response against the tumor. Research into quantifying the tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and relating those numbers to tumor characteristics and outcomes has been carried out across many types of cancer.
According to Teer, a better understanding of how tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes induce cancer cell regression should increase the effectiveness of patient-donated cell therapy and also potentially reveal novel mechanisms of tumor growth. The technique uses next-generation DNA sequencing technologies to identify the changes that lead to the unique protein fragments.
“Our new technique allowed us to more quickly and easily identify mutated gene antigens recognized by T-cells in the immune system,” explained Teer. “Work such as this was previously done by generating and laboriously screening DNA libraries from tumors. The same screening technique may be applicable for identifying mutated antigens in a variety of tumor types.” About Moffitt Cancer Center Located in Tampa, Moffitt is one of only 41 National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers, a distinction that recognizes Moffitt’s excellence in research, its contributions to clinical trials, prevention and cancer control. Since 1999, Moffitt has been listed in U.S. News & World Report as one of “America’s Best Hospitals” for cancer. With more than 4,200 employees, Moffitt has an economic impact on the state of nearly $2 billion. For more information, visit MOFFITT.org, and follow the Moffitt momentum on Facebook, twitter and YouTube.
Media release by Florida Science Communications ###