A diagnosis of liver is made using one or more of the following advanced procedures: endoscopic ultrasound, endoscopic ultrasound-guided biopsy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, interventional radiology and cytopathology.
Stages of Liver Cancer
Identifying the stage of disease – how far advanced it is and whether it is has spread to nearby organs – is an important step in planning the appropriate treatment.
The four stages of liver cancer are:
Stage 0: Abnormal cells are found in the innermost layer of the liver.
Stage I: There is one tumor in the liver and it has not spread to nearby blood vessels.
Stage II: One tumor has spread to nearby blood vessels or there is more than one tumor, none of which is larger than five centimeters.
Stage III: In stage IIIa, more than one tumor is larger than five centimeters or one tumor has spread to a major branch of nearby blood vessels; in stage IIIb, there are one or more tumors of any size that have spread to nearby organs other than the gallbladder, or the cancer cells have spread to the lining of the peritoneal cavity; in stage IIIc, the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes.
Stage IV: The cancer has spread beyond the liver to organs, blood vessels, lymph nodes and tissue in other parts of the body.